Welcome to Madvapes’ Master Guide to Vaping! This series of blogs will be an in-depth resource for potential vapers, or vapers of any level looking to expand his or her knowledge. From the very basics to more advanced and technical information, this guide will provide you with a go-to knowledge base for all things vaping.
Part 1: What is Vaping?
These days, most would assume that everyone has an idea as to what vaping is. Ignoring that assumption, what is it really? In the simplest form, it’s when a battery provides power to a coil in order to turn a liquid solution into vapor. That vapor is inhaled with the purpose of simulating a smoking experience. The vaporized liquid may or may not contain nicotine and/or flavoring as well.
Some might wonder if there’s a difference between vaping and e-cigarettes. The answer isn’t that simple, being that there are no concrete dividing lines between some terms. Generally, e-cigarettes more closely resemble an actual cigarette (generally referred as “analogs” in the vaping community) than a “vape,” “mod,” or “vaporizer.” Granted, you still vape an e-cigarette, but upon observation of more advanced devices, it becomes more and more awkward to refer to them as “e-cigarettes.”
You may have heard the term “mod,” thrown around as well. Before writing the term off as ridiculous, you should know the history. In the very early days of e-cigarettes, circa 2007, there was only one type of e-cigarette available: the cigalike. As the name would suggest, cigalikes looked like cigarettes, inheriting a similar size and shape and mostly differing only in color. Generally, these were not good enough, offering only a glimpse of the true potential of vaping. They had poor flavor, anemic vapor production, short battery life, and questionable build quality.
As a result, some of the more crafty early adopters looked to devise their own e-cigarettes to address these shortcomings. The most obvious solution was to modify a flashlight. Torches used a larger battery which could be removed and recharged, and already had all the electronic components built in. Only a few changes were needed, including replacing the light bulb with some threading that was compatible with e-cigarette hardware, and modifying the switch so that it wouldn’t stick in the “on” position. The result was a “mod.” The term stuck, and even though we’re well beyond the era of tinkering with flashlights, modern mods still retain some features from early versions, such as the battery.
Moving on, the term “vape,” can be used as a noun or as a verb. As a verb, “to vape” is to use the e-cigarette, vaporizer, and/or mod. As a noun, a “vape” is the device you are using to vape. It’s a general term that can be used for virtually any e-cigarette or mod. The sentence, “I’m vaping my vape,” is not technically incorrect, even if it sounds a bit absurd.
Lastly, we arrive at the term “vaporizer.” While it’s not incorrect or refer to any mod or e-cigarette as a vaporizer, it’s generally a term reserved for the cannabis market, which is an entirely different animal from the e-cigarette market. To the casual observer, it may appear as if these two markets are closely related, if not one-in-the-same, but make no mistake; there is a clear separation here, with remarkably little overlap.
Now, let’s talk about the anatomy of an e-cigarette. Every e-cigarette and mod uses the same three components, no matter how simple or advanced they may seem: a battery, a coil, and e-liquid. The battery provides power to the coil, which causes it to heat up. The heat from the coil vaporizes the e-liquid, turning it from a liquid to a vapor to be inhaled. The part that heats up is referred to as an “atomizer.” The atomizer is comprised of the coil, a housing or way to contain the liquid, and some kind of wicking material, which ensures that there is always liquid making contact with the coil. There are many different types of atomizers, including dripping atomizers, tanks, and cartomizers. Although each can be drastically different in how they work, they all serve the same purpose, which is to vaporize the e-liquid.
Batteries come in different styles as well. Some are removable, and some are permanently inside the device. Some can be recharged within the mod, some must be removed and charged in a dedicated charger, and some give you the option of both. Some confusion arises when it comes to batteries and beginner-style devices. For example, consider the cig-a-like. The part with the button is often referred to as the battery. However, the battery is actually inside that housing, along with circuitry such as a switch and possibly an LED. Sometimes, it can be difficult to be clear when referring to batteries, so it’s important to pay attention to context, especially if you’re not quite sure what you’re shopping for.
E-liquid is the component that is heated into vapor. There are only two ingredients that are absolutely necessary in order for a device to work, and they don’t even need to be used together. These ingredients are propylene glycol and vegetable glycerin, or PG and VG respectively. PG is thinner than VG, has a slightly bitter taste, is somewhat harsh on the throat (which is sometimes desirable), and carries any added flavorings very well. VG is a thick liquid with a syrupy viscosity. It has a slightly sweet taste, is very smooth when inhaling, and doesn’t carry flavor quite as well as PG. VG produces a thick vapor which can linger in the air, while PG produces less vapor that dissipates quickly. Most liquids use a mixture of PG and VG to get the best characteristics of both, but the specific ratio that’s “best” is purely personal preference. Some people prefer a crisp flavor and pronounced “throat-hit” over vapor production, which more accurately simulates smoking, and use liquids with more PG to accomplish this. Others value vapor production over flavor, and use liquids that are heavier on VG. Over time, vapers find their preferred balance of vapor production, flavor, and throat hit.
In addition to PG and VG, many liquids contain nicotine. Like caffeine, nicotine is a stimulant, and many people start vaping in order to supplement or replace the nicotine they may be getting from other sources. Nicotine is relatively benign, and like caffeine, is safe when used properly and in proper amounts.
The last component that the majority of e-liquids incorporate is flavoring. While these flavorings have, historically, been the same flavorings used in food, many flavoring manufacturers have started offering flavorings that are designed specifically for vaping. The flavoring is what makes vaping so appealing to so many people. There are literally infinite possible flavorings, and therefore, infinite possible variations of e-liquid flavors. Some people stick to one flavor, and others change flavors frequently. There is no right or wrong way to choose liquid, and the flavor, PG/VG ratio, and nicotine strength are all variable so that the person vaping can choose whichever combination is preferable to them.
Hopefully, you now have a better idea as to what vaping is. What you just read is a very brief overview pertaining to just a few of the aspects of vaping. The selection of e-cigarettes and vaping products out there is just as varied as the people who use them. Our goal at Madvapes is to simplify all the information out there into an easy-to-use guide that makes it as easy as possible to learn more and find answers to any questions you might have.
We’ll be continually adding more to this guide, so be sure to check back periodically as we talk about everything from starter kits, to rebuildables, to the current state of FDA regulation.
Master Guide to Vaping – Part 2
Vaping has come a long way since 2007. I’d venture to guess that the majority of current vapers started vaping well after some serious innovations occurred in the vaping industry. While some of us remember replacing cartridge filler with blue aquarium filter and 1.5Ω “low-resistance” atomizers fondly as a right-of-passage, it’s important for newer vapers to understand where it all started. By reflecting on generations of vaping technology past, it’s easier to understand how current technology came to be and why it works the way it does.
The first e-cigarettes were almost exclusively cig-a-likes. Generally of poor quality, these early models’ greatest contribution was mostly to spark interest and act as a proof-of-concept demonstrating the potential of vape devices. Short battery life, poor vapor production, bottom-of-the-barrel e-liquid, and rampant defects prevented Gen. 1 e-cigarettes from becoming wildly popular. In addition, there were few, if any, American vendors at the time, which made acquiring early e-cigarettes much more difficult for many people. Most hardware and e-liquid was manufactured in China. Not to mention, brick-and-mortar shops were nonexistent. With e-cigarettes being of such poor quality and difficult to obtain, it would be several more years before vapor products started to gain traction.
Gen. 1 e-cigarettes were mostly three pieces: the battery, the atomizer, and the cartridge. The atomizer screwed into the battery, and the cartridge was press-fit into the atomizer. The cartridge would be pre-filled with e-liquid, which would feed into the atomizer. The juice capacity was generally 8-12 drops, and would last about the same amount of time as an analogue; about 20 puffs. The atomizer featured a “bridge,” which was a piece of stainless steel mesh which protruded into the cartridge and fed e-liquid to the coil. Some cartridges could be refilled, but with e-liquid being hard to find and relatively expensive, it was much more convenient to purchase replacement pre-filled cartridges. The absorbent material within the cartridge, “polyfill,” would gradually get matted and worn out, contributing to reduced wicking and poor performance. In addition, strands of polyfill fiber would get tangled in the bridge, making for a mess overall.
Some of the more clever vapers at the time discovered that blue aquarium filter worked much better. It was cheaper than replacing cartridges, and had a texture similar to a sponge except it was more porous. With no strands and resistance to matting, “blue foam” is one of the first examples of user modification to e-cigarettes, and it led to more innovation further down the road.
Some vapers weren’t satisfied with early cigalikes whatsoever, and determined that they could make better ones themselves. E-cigarettes are literally the simplest electronic device that’s possible to make. It’s a power source, a resistor, and a switch at it’s most basic form. To combat the short battery life of a cigalike, some vapers modified flashlights. Not only did flashlights already run off of a similar battery, but the switch was already included. All that was required was to swap out the bulb with threading that would be compatible with an atomizer. The end result was a “mod,” which is a term the industry still uses to describe the majority of vaping devices. These early flashlight mods used a battery with the same chemistry as cigalikes, but could have up to 10x the battery life. In addition, these batteries were readily available, relatively inexpensive, and could be swapped out when depleted and recharged externally.
Eventually, vapers started getting more creative. Being that e-cigarettes were so simple, you could make a mod out of almost anything. People started using project boxes and battery boxes, wiring in their own custom switches, and sometimes even experimenting with potentiometers to incorporate variable voltage functionality.
Around this time, the first dedicated vape shops started opening online. Many sold their own custom mods, e-liquid, and cigalikes imported from China. With the American e-cigarette market starting to develop, variety and quality of vape devices started to improve, and innovation ignited.
After a round of feedback of Gen. 1 products, Gen. 2 saw a huge increase in variety, but not necessarily in quantity. Variable voltage devices were few and far between, and cigalikes still dominated the market. Marketing, especially on the internet, grew and saw the rise of some well-known cigalike brands that still exist today.
While some found satisfaction in mods, many people found them either prohibitively expensive given the quality and reliability, or too gaudy to be practical. As such, mods remained a niche market while cigalikes and eGo-style devices found their place among the majority of vapers. An increase in the size of the battery of the eGo sparked the beginning of the migration from cigalikes. While cigalikes always had and will have their place, they will never be as popular as they were in Gen.1 and Gen. 2.
With the advent of the eGo, many new atomizers became popular, such as clearomizers and cartomizers. Cartomizers were similar in appearance to atomizers, but were single components which were filled with liquid, but also included a coil. Although they were meant to be disposable, cartomizers were easy to refill and lasted just as long as atomizers for a fraction of the price. And because of larger batteries entering the market, cartomizers were available in many different sizes, allowing vapers to find their own preferred balance between size and capacity.
Shortly after, clearomizers hit the market. These found popularity mainly due to the selection of colors and the ability to see how much liquid was remaining. Clearomizers were generally made of plastic and were very cheap and easily damaged. Yet, they were cheap enough that most vapers didn’t mind buying replacements. After a time, clearomizers with replaceable coils came to market. These top-coil clearomizers were the first atomizers to allow the replacement of coils without having to replace the entire atomizer; a design still popular today. Gen.1 atomizers were still popular among a select few, although most had replaced the cartridge with a drip tip. Instead of filling a cartridge, you would drip 2-4 drops right onto the atomizer through the mouthpiece. This arguably offered the best flavor at the cost of convenience, but it’s where the term “drip tip” comes from. The majority of mouthpieces are no longer used to drip, but are still referred to as “drip tips.”
During this time, rebuildable atomizers, or RBAs, began to emerge out of a desire for a higher quality experience. Throughout vaping’s history, the advancement of RBAs has run parallel to that of other atomizers and devices. Genesis tanks and a few dripping atomizers were the only styles available at the time, and were generally expensive and difficult to set up. The 2 main drawbacks of RBAs were cost of entry and learning curve. The initial cost was usually offset by the reduced price of upkeep, as wicking material and wire were cheaper than having to continuously buy and replace coils.
Early rebuildable dripping atomizers (RDAs) were more well-made than cartomizers and clearomizers of the time, but nowhere near what exists today. Being more rare and generally made in smaller batches, it wasn’t uncommon for RDAs to cost upwards of $100. However, they were the cornerstone of vaping innovation and many of today’s atomizers owe their inspiration to vapers who took the leap and began experimenting early. Many found the price and learning curve for an RBA was a fair price to pay for the best vape experience of the time. Some would argue this still applies today.
On the other end of the RBA spectrum, we have rebuildable tank atomizers (RTAs). The first RTA design was the Genesis. Genesis tanks were notoriously difficult to build, tended to leak if not held upright, and required a perfectly horizontal orientation when being used. They required the use of a stainless steel mesh wick, which had to be oxidized first in order to make sure it was non-conductive. Genesis tanks were top-coil tanks, and e-liquid had to travel up the stainless steel wick to the coil, which is why it needed to be tilted 90 degrees when vaping. But again, all these drawbacks were reasonable for many vapers back then because of the exceptional flavor when built correctly.
Keep in mind, lung-hitting, or direct-lung vaping, was not conceived of at this time. Virtually every atomizer was created with small, non-adjustable airflow, and that’s the general theme of Gen. 2. Vaping starts to move away from cigalikes and towards eGos and mods. RBAs make their first appearance. Cartomizers and clearomizers explode in popularity and lay the foundation for how atomizers work. In addition, variable voltage, and later variable wattage, become the standard for many mods. Cigalikes and eGo batteries were fixed at a constant 3.7V, requiring you to buy atomizers of varying resistances to get more or less vapor and heat. With variable voltage, resistance options became less important since you could adjust your heat on the mod itself. Soon after, variable wattage began to overtake variable voltage, mostly for convenience and consistency purposes. Either increasing voltage or decreasing resistance is a somewhat roundabout way of increasing wattage, or power. Variable wattage mods ensured that you experience the same vape with every drag, compensating for small fluctuations in resistance due to heat, or even allowing you to change atomizers without adjusting any settings.
Most variable voltage and variable wattage mods at the time were tube-shaped, with a select few box mods being custom-made by hobbyist or enthusiast vapers on a small scale, and sometimes being sold online. Most variable mods were expected to meet a few unwritten guidelines, such as firing from 3W to 15W and/or 3V to 6V, requiring atomizers to be 1.2Ω or higher, and having an amp limit of 2.5A. These specifications were perfectly fine for 99% of atomizers at the time, but towards the end of Gen. 2, rebuilding started to take off due to the advent of sub-ohm vaping.
Rebuilders were coming up with new ways to improve their vape experience by modifying their atomizers, particularly the airflow. It wasn’t long before drilling out larger airflow holes, dropping nicotine strengths, and lung-hitting became the go-to vaping style for enthusiasts. In order to maximize vapor production, rebuilders also started building sub-ohm coils, or coils with resistances lower than 1Ω. Since regulated mods only fired resistances down to 1.2Ω, vapers started seeking out unregulated mods, particularly mechanical mods. Mechanical mods are made with no wiring, and use craftsmanship and a mechanical switch to provide power directly from the battery to the atomizer. With no board to regulate the device, resistances are only limited by what is safe for the battery. Due to the technical knowledge required to safely use mechanical mods with sub-ohm coils, sub-ohm vaping wasn’t popular with the majority of vapers. But like many other aspects of Gen. 2, the classic mech-and-RDA setup laid the groundwork for many of the trends we see today. Thus begins the transition into Gen. 3.
Gen. 3 sees the further development of Gen. 2 technology. Cartomizers get improved with an additional coil, and are modified to fit into tanks, called DCTs. Clearomizers have their coils moved from the top of the tank to the bottom, alleviating many of the dry hits by improving wicking. RBAs continue to improve and gain popularity, and mechanical mods surge in popularity. Gen. 3 also saw the largest increase in people taking up vaping, due to the quality and variety of vaping devices which now started truly meeting expectations.
Bottom-coil clearomizers and RBAs dominated Gen. 3. For the mass market, bottom-coil clearomizers offered a nearly endless variety of shapes, colors, coils, etc. Over time, many plastic clearomizers were replaced with glass. In addition, larger varieties (tanks) became popular, and would eventually replace clearomizers for most vapers. With tanks and clearomizers lasting longer due to better build quality, coil technology was able to flourish. Many manufacturers designed their own proprietary coils, with each claiming to be the best, and while many vapers eventually found their favorites, most coils were very similar. The overall design wouldn’t change drastically until Gen. 4, but Gen. 3 did see an increase in coil consistency, along with improvements designed to reduce leaking.
Meanwhile, mechanical mods and RBAs were all the rage, as this was the only way to effectively vape sub-ohm. RDAs began offering much wider airflow that didn’t require modification to blow clouds. Chinese manufacturers had a hard time keeping up with innovation, and rarely produced quality RDAs or mechanical mods, which required a level of craftsmanship that China just wasn’t equipped for. As a result, authentic mechanical mods and RBAs were very expensive, with mods costing upwards of $200 and atomizers costing $80 at a minimum. In a rush to capture the market, China began cloning authentic mods and atomizers. For a fraction of the price, you could experience high-end vaping at the cost of build quality. For many vapers, this was the only option since few people had the resources to spend $250 on a new setup.
Batteries, and 18650 batteries in particular, became the single-most popular battery size and the technology needed to improve in order to keep up with vaping. With people vaping lower and lower resistances, batteries needed higher amp limits to remain safe. While high-amp batteries generally had a low capacity at first, over time, developments in battery chemistry have allowed capacity to almost double while retaining the same 20A – 30A limit.
However, even with being able to get everything you needed to vape sub-ohm affordably, many people just weren’t familiar with how to do it, and do it safely. There was no shortage of guides on the internet, but some people just weren’t comfortable with it, and it remained this way for over a year. You had the enthusiast market who used mechanical mods and RDAs, and had a working knowledge of Ohm’s Law and battery safety. Everyone else was using variable mods or eGo-style devices, cartomizers, clearomizers, or tanks. The enthusiasts were mostly cloud chasers, and everyone else was stuck with mouth-to-lung vaping.
Of course, there were some exceptions such as the Kayfun. The Kayfun was a rebuildable tank (one of the first that wasn’t Genesis-style) which was completely geared towards flavor and MTL vaping. Most RDAs at the time could also be built to a higher resistance with the airflow closed off in order to MTL, but they were primarily designed for DL vaping.
Eventually, 2 and 2 finally added up to 4, and 2 things happened: first, variable mods that could fire sub-ohm were made available, and would become more affordable over time, and sub-ohm vaping would come to the mass market with the introduction of Aspire’s Atlantis tank: the first sub-ohm tank, and it would change the vaping market completely.
Make no mistake, the Aspire Atlantis was a game-changer. It was the first atomizer made to be lung-hit, and it didn’t require any knowledge of rebuilding. It worked the same way as bottom-coil clearomizers, except the airflow and coils were much larger to allow for lung-hitting and increased vapor production. The Atlantis finally allowed non-enthusiast vapers to get the cloud production of a rebuildable, but in a tank that they were already familiar with how to use and without having to dedicate time to learning how to rebuild.
The initial problem with the Atlantis was that sub-ohm regulated mods were still in their infancy. Any of these devices that were of good quality were expensive, and cheaper versions had their fair share of problems. Of course, mechanical mods were still an option, having the best quality in relation to price, but many people were already accustomed to regulated mods and didn’t like mechanical mods for one reason or another. Some people didn’t like the sense of the vape getting weaker as the battery died. Some liked the convenience of being able to turn the device off. Whatever the reason, mechanical mods surged in popularity for a short while, until regulated mod technology was able to catch up.
Eventually, mods began to fire lower resistances at higher wattages. With the Atlantis needing at least 30 watts of power, the standard 15-watt device simply wouldn’t work. In addition, the standard Atlantis coils were 0.5Ω, much lower than the Gen. 1-3 minimum for most mods: 1.2Ω. Almost all of the mods we see today are derivative of these early “high-wattage” mods. They generally had 3 buttons and a screen, and would fire sub-ohm coils. This began the “wattage wars,” or the time when every company was trying to create a mod that would fire higher and higher wattages. At the same time, every manufacturer wanted to copy the Atlantis, and even improve upon it. With different coils needing more and more power, mods also needed more and more power. The wattage wars are just now starting to slow down, with sub-ohm tanks using coils that work up to 220W, and mods that use multiple batteries in order to provide up to 300W of power.
What’s ironic is that the overall design of the Atlantis coils (and most of the coils that came after) is based on the Gen. 2 cartomizer. Instead of a wick going through the coil, it’s wrapped around it. The big differences between the 2 is that sub-ohm coils are much larger to allow for more airflow, and the wicking material is organic cotton instead of polyfill. Organic cotton wick was made popular with rebuildables in Gen. 3. Unlike standard silica wick, cotton can burn when dry, but it provides better flavor, was easier to find for purchase, and was significantly cheaper. Nowadays, silica wick is virtually unheard of.
At this point in Gen. 4, we have high-wattage mods and sub-ohm tanks that are improving every day. Airflow of sub-ohm tanks continues to get larger and larger, as do their replacement coils. Also, the number of coils within the replacement increases, and currently you can find premade coils for sub-ohm tanks housing up to 10 coils. The quality and reliability of mods increases significantly, while price simultaneously drops. Even starter kits are starting to come with sub-ohm tanks. Basically what we are starting to see is a homogenization of products. Mods can fire virtually anything and are reasonably priced. Sub-ohm tanks make large strides over the Atlantis, and even start to offer special coils made for MTL vaping, meaning that a single tank can cater to multiple vaping styles.
Now we’re starting to overlap a bit with the current generation: Gen. 5.
Generation 5 very may well be the final generation for vaping products because of both a lack of new technology, and the FDA Deeming Regulations which only exacerbates the technology stagnation. However, one very important development inherent to Gen. 5 is temperature control. While temperature control was technically born in Gen. 4, it was more of a gimmick until Gen. 5, where it became viable.
What exactly is temperature control? In short, a mod can control the temperature of the coil, in addition to being able to regulate the power. All wire used for coils actually increases in resistance when heated, some more than others. For example, nickel’s resistance changes drastically with heat, while Kanthal hardly changes resistance at all. Temperature control measures this change in resistance in order to calculate temperature, and the final product is burn prevention. Temperature control is specifically designed to eliminate dry hits and burning.
Nickel was the first wire to be used for temperature control since the resistance changes more than any other wire when heated. There were some health concerns with using nickel, but given the nature of temperature control, nickel couldn’t get hot enough when used properly to be harmful. Nevertheless, some vapers weren’t comfortable using nickel. In response, titanium and stainless steel wire became popular. Over time, every mod would offer temperature control for nickel, titanium, and stainless steel in addition to the classic variable wattage.
Temperature control is basically a standard feature on variable mods these days. Some people love it and some people hate it, but it’s most likely going on be possible on any modern regulated device. Most experienced vapers don’t have a problem with dry hits when using variable wattage, and so don’t find any value in temperature control. Others like having the extra peace of mind, or just enjoy the unique sensation that vaping with temperature control offers.
Sub-ohm tanks are currently the most popular type of atomizer, and many share certain qualities. The majority of modern sub-ohm tanks are filled from the top and use similar coils that haven’t changed much since the Atlantis. In addition, even flavor chasers mostly lung-hit nowadays, albeit with more restricted airflow compared to cloud chasers. Many sub-ohm tanks also offer a coil that can be rebuilt. A handful of tanks offered this in Gen. 4, but the RBA decks were generally finicky, and served more as a backup or something to tinker with. Now, RBA decks are good enough to rival dedicated RTAs.
Dedicated RTAs have also come a long way, with more airflow, reduced leaking, and top-filling. Even Genesis-style tanks have made a comeback, although they more closely resemble RDAs with large juice wells than classic Genesis tanks. RTAs come in all shapes and sizes, with varying airflow designed for either flavor chasing or cloud chasing, and some work well for both.
RDAs have also been perfected, and offer some of the widest variety when it comes to vaping products. The simple premise of a dripper allows designers and manufacturers to get creative, offering all kinds of different airflow options and deck varieties. In general, RDAs are some of the easiest atomizers to rebuild, and there’s no shortage of wire types and vaping styles. If you can deal with the inherent relative messiness and the lack of e-liquid capacity, RDAs offer some of the best flavor and vapor production possible.
Rebuildables in general have never been more accessible, in no small part due to the fact that they are competing with sub-ohm tanks. They’re inexpensive, well-made, easy to find, and simple to build with minimal investment and learning curve.
Unfortunately, on May 10, 2016 the FDA released the Deeming Regulations. We’ll get more into detail about that in a future article, but the most immediate effect is that no new products can enter the US market after August 8, 2016. The good news is that vape technology has reached a plateau. We have mods that can do virtually anything at reasonable prices and in all shapes and sizes suited to any vaper. We have a myriad of atomizers, many of which are able to satisfy multiple vape styles. Starter kits have never been more versatile, with many consisting of a single piece and allowing new vapers to, again, experience multiple vaping styles in order to determine which they prefer before upgrading. The vape industry is well past the point where every product needs to be treated with skepticism as to whether they’ll even work or not. 99% of the products on the market work as intended, and the only thing left to determine is which one works best for you.
That catches us up to current day, and that doesn’t even touch upon everything. Vaping began as an underground, niche product that had huge potential but didn’t work very well. It’s been nothing but non-stop improvement and innovation since 2007, and now is finally starting to stall out. In only 10 years, vaping has become a worldwide phenomenon. For as many products that are out there, there are just as many vapers. There truly is something for everybody if you know where to look. From devices that almost perfectly replicate an analog cigarette experience, to devices that are more comparable with fog machines, vaping has become a sprawling landscape of atomizers and mods. While people who started vaping in Gen. 1 or Gen. 2 remember that time with fondness, vapers who’ve just started recently and curious non-vapers alike might find it interesting to know where vaping started and how far it’s come. Take a close look at the newest device or atomizer, and you’ll start to see remnants of an era of vaping long past.
Master Guide to Vaping Part 3 – E-Liquid
Perhaps the most important component to any e-cigarette or vapor device is the e-liquid. No matter your setup or vaping style, every vaper needs e-liquid. You may have heard it referred to as juice, liquid, e-juice, or possibly another variation, but it all means the same thing: it’s the liquid component that gets vaporized and inhaled.
E-liquid is comprised of up to 4 ingredients:
- Vegetable glycerin (VG)
- Propylene glycol (PG)
However, it’s possible to vape e-liquid with a single ingredient, either VG or PG only. In reality, most people vape for either the flavor or nicotine, or both, and most wouldn’t find it purposeful or enjoyable to just vape the base liquid.
There are 3 desirable qualities in any e-liquid: flavor, vapor production, and throat hit. Everyone has their own preference as to which of these are most important. For those who favor throat hit and flavor above vapor production, a liquid with more PG would be better. If you value vapor production over flavor and throat hit, an e-liquid with a higher VG concentration is ideal. However, you don’t have to think of this in extremes, as there are an infinite number of variations that allow you to find the perfect balance that’s right for you. We’ll discuss this more later, but first, what’s the important information to look for when choosing an e-liquid?
There are 3 important numbers when looking at e-liquid: the nicotine strength, the size, and the PG/VG ratio. Nicotine strength is measured in mg/mL, which is often shortened to “mg” only. You will often see nicotine strengths such as 3mg, 6mg, 12mg, etc. Sometimes, the nicotine level of the e-liquid will be measured in a percentage, and you’ll see the nicotine level displayed as 0.3%, 0.6%, 1.2%, etc. An easy way to convert mg to percentage is to move the decimal place to the left by 1 digit, and change “mg” to “%.” For example, 24mg would become 2.4%. Conversely, 1.8% would be equivalent to 18mg.
Determining which nicotine strength is best for you requires some trial and error. A good place to start for most people is 6mg, but it depends on how much nicotine you’re used to. If you’re still craving nicotine at 6mg, try increasing it to 12mg. If it’s harsh or if you don’t feel well, try decreasing your nicotine strength. And of course, if you’re not used to any nicotine, just use 0mg! Also, keep in mind that you’ll get more nicotine from Direct-Lung vaping than from Mouth-to-Lung vaping. If switching from MTL to DL, it is strongly recommended that you decrease your nicotine strength by at least 50%.
The size of the bottle is generally displayed in milliliters (mL). The most popular sizes are 10mL, 15mL, 30mL, and 50mL, although bottles of any size can be used by the manufacturer. To provide some context, 30mL is equal to 1 ounce. Any given volume of liquid will vary in how long it lasts, based on how often someone takes a puff, what setup they’re using, etc. Also, remember that the size of the bottle has no bearing on nicotine strength. Any given volume of 3mg e-liquid, for example, will always be 3mg, since it’s actually 3mg/mL.
The PG/VG ratio tells you how much PG and VG are used in the base liquid.
- a more defined throat hit
- carries flavoring very well
- produces less vapor.
- thicker and sweeter
- produces more vapor at the expense of flavor and throat hit
Every e-liquid uses a different ratio, and every vaper eventually finds their preferred ratio. Most modern e-liquids don’t use more than 50% PG, since it’s about the same viscosity as 100% PG. However, 100% PG tends to be too bitter and harsh, and adding that 50% VG to the mix smooths it out and makes it sweeter. However, if you choose to DIY, you can absolutely choose to create 100% PG mixes if you prefer to.
Vapers who lung-hit generally prefer high-VG liquids. The atomizers they use are designed to feed thicker e-liquid to the coil faster, so thinner liquid tends to leak. Also, DL vapers tend to prefer more vapor production, and VG is better for that. Since each flavor extract used in e-liquid can be a different concentration or simply a stronger or weaker flavor, many liquids are designated “Max VG.” Since most flavorings use PG as a base, it’s virtually impossible to create 100% VG liquids, so manufacturers simply omit PG from their base liquid, and add flavoring. As such, each flavor may have a different PG/VG ratio, so it’s much easier to label these liquids as “Max VG.”
One thing to note is that e-liquid is not, and contains no, oil. Even though some people refer to e-liquid as “oil,” this is incorrect. There’s a simple way of experiencing the difference. If you were to rub olive oil all over your hands and run them under water, your hands would still be oily. Water and oil separate, and water doesn’t do a good job of cleaning off oil without soap. On the other hand, if you were to rub e-liquid on your hands (without nicotine, of course) and run them underwater, you’d find that your hands are clean. E-liquid is closer to an alcohol than an oil, and it mixes with water. It’s important to note the difference, because some people prefer to make their own e-liquid instead of buy it, and there are certain flavorings that are oil-based. Not only will these oil-based flavorings ruin an atomizer, but they may also be related to negative health effects. To avoid confusion, it’s important to refer to things as precisely as possible, and calling e-liquid “oil” is not only incorrect, but may be dangerous.
One thing that’s important to recognize, especially if you’re a new vaper, is that eventually, you’re going to vape an e-liquid that you don’t like. Even the same type of flavor between 2 different brands may taste completely different. Half the fun is sampling the thousands of different e-liquids that are out there. Most people start with tobacco flavors, but eventually move on to a variety of different flavors. Some people constantly change flavors, sometimes multiple times per day, while others find 1 liquid that they love and stick to it. The moral of the story is that there’s no correct way to choose liquid. Change flavors and try new things if you want, but stick to what you know you like if that’s more comfortable. Buy e-liquid if you’d like, or try your hand at making your own. This guide is a good starting point, but the world of e-liquid is endless, with discussions, reviews, and recipe sharing happening all over the internet.
Now that you know what to look for and what the numbers mean, go forth and enjoy the myriad of flavors vaping has to offer!
Master Guide to Vaping Part 4 – Starter Kits
Starter kits are the cornerstone of vaping. Generally, they will be the first vaping experience for newcomers, and as such, it’s important to know what to look for. Luckily, starter kits have become increasingly more reliable and versatile in recent years, and many will allow you to try several styles of vaping, allowing you to determine which works best for you, and the route you should take if and when you decide to upgrade.
A common misconception among many is that new starter kits are difficult to use, or too advanced for them. Even with modern technology such as sub-ohm vaping and temperature control now available in a starter kit, they are remarkably simple and easy to use. They’re designed to be, because they’re offering the first taste of vaping and can make or break a first experience. In fact, starter kits are largely the reason vaping has exploded in the last 2-3 years, even though it’s been around for 10.
Starter kits used to be unreliable, offering a relatively poor experience compared to more complex devices. As a result, many people who tried starter kits didn’t have the patience to deal with all the problems such as leaking, manufacturer defects, etc. In the last few years, these problems have largely been rectified, and starter kits have been able to provide more people with better experiences. As a result, more people have continued vaping. Your first experience with vaping has an impact that can affect the rest of your vaping journey, either sparking interest and encouraging you to continue vaping, or with a poor experience, completely turning you off to vaping altogether.
So what should you look for in starter kit? You probably don’t yet know what kind of vaping experience you prefer. In order to get the most value out of your starter kit, versatility should be your main concern, in addition to quality. Quality is easier to identify. Generally, choosing a starter kit from a brand-name manufacturer will ensure that you get a device that has been tested and is reliable. Innokin, Smoktech, Joyetech, Vaporesso, and Aspire are just a few of the name brands that are respected in the vaping community.
There are 2 main vaping styles:
- Mouth-to-lung (MTL) : Less Airflow, Smaller Coils
- Direct-lung (DL): More Airflow, Larger Coils
Most starter kits allow you to try out both styles. The 2 main ways they do this is by allowing you to adjust the airflow, and offering replacement heads with different size coils. MTL vaping requires less airflow, but if the coil is made for DL vaping, reducing the airflow of the tank results in poor vapor production and a harsh throat hit. Conversely, the airflow potential of any atomizer is going to be determined by the smallest part of the airflow path. This means that coils designed for MTL vaping will be the determining factor of the maximum airflow, rather than the airflow adjustment on the atomizer itself. Therefore, DL vaping requires the larger coils and MTL vaping requires the smaller coils to get the best respective vape experiences for each style.
The above 2 factors are really the only variables when it comes to choosing your vape style, and most starter kits nowadays have adjustable airflow and allow you to choose among several coils. Of course, other features will vary based on which particular starter kit you’re considering, but the purpose of a starter kit is to give you the best vaping experience possible with the minimum amount of hassle. There is no longer any reason to be apprehensive about vaping if you’re concerned that there’s just too much information to understand. Nobody starts with a wealth of knowledge; it’s learned if and when you decide to get more invested in vaping and take a larger interest. Luckily, vaping has finally reached a point where little knowledge is needed to get started. You may have heard some horror stories from veteran vapers, or even a passing conversation between enthusiasts and thought to yourself, “that stuff is way beyond me.” I’m here to tell you that it doesn’t matter!
I can’t stress this enough: getting into vaping has never been easier or more satisfying. When looking at starter kits there are no shortage of options. The best advice is to choose something that is made by a reputable company and that is versatile, so you can experience the widest range of vaping styles with minimal hassle. Madvapes offers an entire category of quality starter kits made by a variety of brand-name companies, so I encourage you to take a look, and don’t forget about e-liquid and replacement coils!
Master Guide to Vaping Part 5 – Intermediate Kits
Intermediate kits represent the most popular style of vaping across the board. They’re generally right in the middle in terms of just about everything. Average price, average performance, average battery life, etc. However, these intermediate kits serve just about any purpose you could ask for as a vaper. They can be a device for a first-timer since they’re only marginally more difficult to use than proper starter kits. They can be primary setups for just about anyone. Or, they can be backup or travel devices for more advanced vapers. Intermediate kits appeal to a wide range of vapers, and as such, they represent the majority of mods and atomizers on the market.
The most recent iteration of the intermediate kit varies quite a bit in aesthetics, but they all operate in the same way. In general, they all use an LED screen with 3-button operation. They mostly all have temperature control and variable wattage capabilities and come with some type of subohm tank. Some devices have an internal battery and some require separate batteries, but most intermediate mods only use a single battery and cap out around 80W as a maximum. However, for any device with a single battery, any power setting higher than 50W will drain the battery much more quickly. If you need to use a higher wattage, it’s recommended to get a device that uses two or more batteries, which would technically classify them as advanced devices. These will be discussed in a future article, but I should point out that there is some overlap between different classes of mods since there’s no “official” hierarchy. In general, even though advanced devices may not be more difficult to understand or use compared to intermediate mods, they’re designed for vapers that use either more advanced atomizers or rebuildables that require higher power in order to perform optimally. Of course, there will always be examples of mods and atomizers breaking from the norm and not conforming to the starter/intermediate/advanced archetype, so just be aware of that.
For a vaper coming from a starter kit, said starter kit should have given them some idea as to their vaping preference. Do you prefer mouth-to-lung (MTL) vaping or direct-lung (DL) vaping? Do you prefer a warm vape or a cool vape? Are you a cloud-chaser or a flavor-chaser? Once you’ve determined the answer to these questions, you can look at which intermediate kits fit your needs. For example, if you’re a flavor-chaser and you prefer MTL vaping, you might consider one of the Kanger Subox kits, which feature adjustable airflow and a coil that’s designed for MTL vaping.
The other great thing about kits at the intermediate level is that you can mix and match. Unlike an AIO device, intermediate kits mostly require an atomizer separate from the mod. So if you’re a cloud-chaser who likes DL vaping, for example, you can get something like the iStick Pico Mega and pair it with the Uwell Crown V2 subohm tank. If you happen to like both MTL and DL vaping and want to be able to switch back and forth, you can get multiple coils for the same tank, or get multiple tanks and use them on the same mod. This is the primary difference between starter kits and intermediate kits. They’re much more modular and customizable.
For people looking to start vaping by jumping straight into intermediate kits, a little research is required. While not difficult to use, there is certain terminology as well as a sense of consensus about what is good and what is not. The good news is that it’s easier than ever to get information about vaping. Brick and mortar stores are far more common than they were 5 years ago, and there’s also several forums on the internet that are very welcoming and willing to help get you started. There will still be a learning curve in order to determine which vaping style works best for you, but certain tanks will let you try more than one style. Because of the nature of most intermediate devices, when you do dial in the best vape and have a better idea as to what you like, upgrading only requires you to get a new tank, not necessarily a new mod.
Intermediate kits are the most balanced and varied of all vaping devices, and therefore the most popular. They offer a good quality vape experience while remaining relatively inexpensive and easy to upgrade. Most of them allow you to swap the atomizer that you’re using so you can try new vape styles as well as experiment with new atomizers without having to buy an entirely new kit. Generally, if you’re willing to do a bit of research and/or talk to some vapers before buying, intermediate kits are a better investment than starter kits. Most people will upgrade from a starter kit at some point, but the majority of vapers settle in the intermediate range. For those of you interested in the cream of the crop, be sure to read the next article in this series to find out more about advanced devices!
Master Guide to Vaping Part 6 – Advanced Devices
Advanced devices generally have similar functionality compared to intermediate devices. Sometimes they’ll have a few extra bells and whistles, but mostly offer higher consistent power and longer battery life, mainly due to the fact that advanced devices usually require multiple batteries. More batteries means a longer period of time between charges, and the ability to fire at a higher power without the device scaling back due to lack of battery voltage and less current per battery. Nowadays, advanced devices function exactly the same way as intermediate devices, except the majority require separate batteries, a separate charger, and generally cost a bit more. Eventually, many people find that the advantages of owning such a device are well-worth the cost.
So what are the advantages and why to they justify the higher price? We already mentioned a couple of them above; more battery life and more consistent power. But what does that mean for you practically? First, it opens up the number of atomizers you can use. More robust sub-ohm tanks and rebuildables can require anywhere from 50W to 250W: power levels single-battery devices just can’t handle. Alternatively, you can choose a tank that requires a low power, and get insane battery life! Depending on the specific advice, some more advanced devices will let you use temperature control with different wire types, or customize more settings when it comes to temperature control.
Advanced devices usually mean a larger size, which is mostly determined by how many batteries it requires. Of course, there are some single-battery intermediate mods which are larger than dual-battery advanced mods, but those are the exceptions. For the most part, you can expect advanced mods to be some of the largest devices you can find. Many are still designed to be comfortable and ergonomic, but remember that these mods are focusing on power and quality over convenience. However, few people jump into vaping and go straight to advanced devices and therefore have a separate device to use as a backup or something to travel with when convenience needs to take priority.
If you had to pick one device to use exclusively, an advanced mod is the best choice. They have the ability to fire almost any atomizer, and are some of the most well-made devices on the market. Generally, you’ll be basing your purchasing decision on aesthetics, build quality, and maximum power/number of batteries. Also, if you want delve more deeply into the features, the chip that the mod uses may also be a factor. Some boards actually fire differently, and although subtle, it can affect the way a particular atomizer vapes. Boards like the DNA200, FSK chip, and SX series are some of the most revered and coveted due to the reliability, wide range of features, customization potential, and consistency of the vape quality.
So you’re probably wondering when you should consider an advanced mod over something intermediate. If you’re a heavy vaper, an advanced mod will give you more battery life, which is more convenient if you find yourself unable to charge your batteries for long periods of time. If your device uses removable 18650 batteries, as most do, you can bring extra batteries along with you too, but depending on how many batteries your device needs, how much you vape, and what resistance/power your setup is running at, this might not even be necessary. If you want to use certain sub-ohm tanks, or at least would like the option of using them optimally, the higher power offered by advanced devices is necessary. Even if you use a lower-power atomizer but want to “future-proof” your setup, an advanced device is the best way to do that. Remember, just because your mod is capable of 200W doesn’t mean that it won’t work just as well at 20W.
Not even a year ago, I could have told you that advanced devices offer the latest vaping technology and are the most difficult to use. With the innovation plateau that the industry is currently experiencing, this is no longer true. Today, advanced devices are just as easy to use as intermediate devices. Conversely, many of the features available in advanced mods are available in intermediate devices, and even some starter kits. The key difference is the reliability. While certain starter kits may be able to do things like temperature control, an advanced mod will be able to do it better. The temperature will be more accurate, you’ll be able to change your temperature more precisely, etc.
In conclusion, advanced devices will give you the maximum versatility you can achieve in vaping. They work with anything, have the most features, and generally have the best battery life. In theory, they’ll last longer and are better-made. Additionally, there’s not really a reason to be intimidated anymore; “advanced” isn’t synonymous with “difficult,” as most are relatively easy to use compared to intermediate-level devices. While intermediate devices and kits will generally be more compact, advanced devices emphasize power and performance over size, and that’s the main difference to consider. Also, consider that since many advanced devices are larger, they’re much better-suited towards larger atomizers, particularly those with 24mm or 25mm diameters. With such atomizers becoming more popular and numerous because of the increased capacity, coil size, and power requirements, this is just one more reason to consider a larger multi-battery mod.
Madvapes offers a wide selection of advanced devices that represent the best of what vaping has to offer. This includes the Reuleaux RX300, Sigelei Fuchai 213, and the Alien 220, just to name a few. So when you’re ready to get the best vape experience currently possible, be sure to check out www.madvapes.com and remember, we price match! We already offer some of the lowest prices on the internet, but if you find a lower price from an eligible website, we’ll match it! If you’re looking for a worthwhile upgrade or to just add another great mod to your collection, our “Mod” category is where you want to look.
Master Guide to Vaping Part 8 – Ohm’s Law and Battery Safety
Battery safety and Ohm’s Law go hand-in-hand. You can’t learn one without the other, so this guide will require some rudimentary math skills. Overall, many of the concepts you’re about to learn are simple, and the safe practices are mostly common sense once you have a basic understanding. No doubt, you’ve heard of stories about batteries exploding. After reading this guide you’ll have a good idea as to how you can prevent personal injury, property damage, and possibly ending up on the news.
The majority of safety concerns pertain to removable batteries. Mods with internal batteries are inherently safer, despite their drawbacks. So the first thing we need to do is explore the batteries themselves.
The most common battery used in vaping is the 18650 battery. The number “18650” refers to its size; “18” denotes that it is 18mm in diameter, “65” means it has a height of 65mm, and the “0” simply means it’s round or cylindrical. So a 26650 battery is 26mm in diameter and 65mm tall, a 20500 battery is 20mm in diameter and 50mm tall, and so on and so forth.
18650 batteries use lithium ion chemistry, as do the majority of rechargeable batteries. Different batteries may use slightly different chemistries to increase capacity or current rating, but they all use some type of lithium ion. The most common used in vaping is the IMR battery, or LiMn. This stands for lithium manganese, but with vaping becoming more popular and devices becoming more demanding, many manufacturers have built upon IMR technology and created proprietary blends. However, the chemistry isn’t as important as the specifications, which we’ll address shortly. The only chemistry that should stand out is ICR, or LiCo which uses lithium cobalt. These are the original batteries used in flashlights when mods were first being made, and therefore found their way into early vaping devices. Back then, devices required less power and atomizers were built with higher resistances, so ICR technology was fine. Today, however, you want to avoid ICR batteries at all costs. They offer the highest battery capacity, but also produce the most violent reaction when they fail.
Most all lithium ion batteries are rated for 3.7V, but this is an average. Fully charged, they will output 4.2V, and below 3.2V they may become damaged and never work again. You may stumble upon 4.35V lithium ion batteries when shopping around, but these are not suited to vaping. The higher voltage will result in absolutely no advantage, and may even damage your device.
The next important number is the capacity, measured either in milliamp-hours (mAh) or watt-hours (wH). In vaping, mAh is the more common number to see, but it has no absolute value. This is to say, it’s impossible to gauge how long the battery will last with that information alone. In order to get a sense of how long any given battery will last, you would need to have used a battery previously, and also guesstimate based on your atomizer’s resistance and the voltage or wattage you’re using. A good rule of thumb is that for every 100mAh, you can expect 1 hour of constant use with a 2.4Ω coil at 3.7V. Constant use means simply using your device normally for an hour, not holding the fire button down for an hour. Of course, this also depends on the length of your draw and how often you take a drag, so you can already see how mAh requires some previous vaping experience in order for you to get an idea how long a particular battery will last for you.
Watt-hours are much more straightforward, but rarely used. 1 Wh means that a battery will last 1 hour when used at 1W, and that’s 1 total hour of power, not the above-mentioned “constant use.” By using an online calculator, you can convert mAh to Wh easily. As an example, a 3000mAh lithium ion battery equates to 11.1Wh. This means that you’ll get 1 hour of vape time at 11.1W. From there, you can estimate your battery life. Let’s say you vape at 30W. Since you’ll get 1 hour of vape time at 11.1W, and 30W is approximately three times that number, you can expect to get about 1/3 of an hour of vape time at 30W, which is about 20 minutes. If each drag you take is 5 seconds, that means for every minute of vape time you take 12 drags. 12 drags multiplied by 20 minutes means you can take 120 drags with a 3000mAh battery when the device is set to 30W and drags are 5 seconds long. As you can see, this is a much more precise way of gauging battery life. All you need to know is the mAh rating and voltage of your battery (or watt-hours, if that information is available), and what wattage you’ll be vaping at. But what about mods that use more than one battery?
First, it’s important to know the difference between batteries in series and batteries in parallel. Batteries in series are sometimes referred to as “stacked,” so imagine two batteries stacked on top of one another. In this configuration, the natural voltage of the total circuit is doubled if there are two batteries in the circuit. The mAh rating and maximum current remain the same. In parallel, multiple batteries are oriented with the same polarity. With two batteries, the mAh rating and maximum current are doubled, but the voltage remains the same as a single battery; in this case, 3.7V.
If you’re calculating watt-hours for a multi-battery mod where the batteries are in series, the mAh rating you’ll input into the calculator will be the mAh rating of a single battery, and the voltage will be 3.7V multiplied by the number of batteries. For example, if you’re using three 3000mAh batteries in series in a Reuleaux RX200, you would input 3000mAh and 11.1V into the calculator and let it convert that to watt-hours. Alternatively, if you’re using the same three batteries in parallel, you would input 9000mAh and 3.7V. Coincidentally, you will get 33.3Wh with both calculations. In a regulated mod, battery life is the same when using the same batteries regardless of whether they are in series or in parallel.
If that doesn’t make sense to you, don’t worry. It doesn’t necessarily pertain to battery safety. However, if you’re interested in delving deeper into the world of batteries or want to more accurately predict battery life, it’s useful information.
The most important number when it comes to battery safety is the maximum discharge rate. This information is usually available right on the battery wrapper or from the store or website you bought the battery from. Batteries designed for vaping usually go out of their way to make this information as prominent as possible, and if you can’t find this information, play it safe and don’t use that battery for vaping. Current is the amount of electricity in a circuit, and drawing too much from a battery is dangerous. The battery is liable to heat up or even explode if its current rating is exceeded.
Modern mods generally will have some sort of documentation telling you what the current rating of your battery should be, so all you need to do is find a battery that meets or exceeds this number. However, the recommended current rating on a mod is generally based on the maximum wattage and minimum resistance that it can handle. The documentation might recommend 30A batteries, and the mod is capable of firing at 200W down to a resistance of 0.1Ω. If you plan on vaping at 50W with a 0.3Ω resistance, a 20A battery with a 3000mAh capacity will still be safe.
Knowing all that, we can now talk about Ohm’s Law. Ohm’s Law applies mostly to unregulated and mechanical mods. Because there is no board between the battery and the coil, there is nothing to protect you if you exceed the current rating. Ohm’s Law states that voltage is equivalent to the current multiplied by the resistance, or:
V=IR, where V=Voltage, I=Current, and R=Resistance
With some basic algebra, it also states:
In most cases, you’ll be trying to find the safest resistance you can use based on what battery you have. V should always be 4.2V. Even though the battery is rated for 3.7V, it increased to 4.2V on a full charge. As for the current, I, that information should be known. If it’s not, again, find a new battery to use where you know the maximum continuous discharge rate. 20A is a common value, so let’s use that. Since we’re trying to find resistance, R, we’re going to use R=V/I. We know the voltage and current, so plug those numbers in:
Easy! The minimum resistance you can safely use with a 20A battery in an unregulated mod is 0.21Ω. You can even avoid doing the math altogether by using an online calculator. Just plug in the numbers that are known, voltage and current rating, and it will calculate the minimum safe resistance for you.
You might be wondering where power, or wattage, comes in. To find wattage, you need to know the voltage and the resistance:
Again, plug in the numbers and get the result. Alternatively, use an online calculator.
Most any mod nowadays is adjusted in wattage, so you won’t really need to do this calculation since wattage will always be known. However, when it comes to figuring out how much current you’re pulling from your batteries in a regulated mod, the above formula becomes relevant.
In a regulated mod, the wattage is split between how many batteries there are. For example, if your mod is using two batteries and you’re vaping at 80W, each battery is carrying the strain of 40W. As a rule of thumb, a single battery works best at 50W or less. Higher than 50W isn’t necessarily dangerous, but battery life will be short, and performance will suffer, especially if you’re vaping sub-ohm. But how can we determine how much current is being pulled from each battery. More math!
To find the current, we need to know the resistance and the voltage. The resistance is easy to find. It will be printed on the coil you are using, or you can test a coil you’ve built yourself on an ohm meter. Voltage is a little tricky. Since we know P and R and are looking for V, we need to use algebra to make the P=(V*V)/R formula work for us:
In English, you’re going to multiply the wattage by the resistance, then take the square root of that number. The result will be your voltage. Since we want to find the current of each of the two batteries, we’re going to use 40W, which is 80W split between the two batteries:
Even though each battery is not actually getting 2.9V in practice, we’re using this number to get the actual current value of each battery. Now that we have values for V and R, we can figure out I:
There you have it! In a regulated mod set to 80W where a 0.21Ω atomizer is being used, you’re getting 13.8A, well below the 20A rating of your battery. And you thought middle school algebra was useless!
Rest assured, you won’t need to do any of this math on a regular basis. Once you find batteries and mods that you know are safe with a given resistance and how you like to vape, it will all become second nature. Additionally, many mods will simply tell you most of this information on the display, but if you’re planning on giving unregulated or mechanical mods a shot, knowing Ohm’s Law and how to determine if your setup is safe to vaping is absolutely necessary.
When finding a battery to use for vaping, you may also see a maximum pulse discharging rate. It’s highly recommended that you ignore this number. While the continuous rate will be safe when the device is activated for long periods, pulse rate is only safe when quick pulses are used. The problem is that there is no standard for how long these pulses are. Some of these pulse ratings may have been based on a pulse of less than one seconds, while others may have been based on five-second pulses. There’s really no way to know, and anything over the continuous rating will cause batteries to heat up which can lead to failure. The only question is how fast they will heat up.
Another number you may see is the C-rating. This number can be used to find the continuous discharge rate, but it isn’t in itself the actual discharge rate. First, you need to convert milliamp-hours (mAh) into amp-hours (Ah), which is really easy. Just move the decimal place to the left by three spaces. For that 3000mAh battery we were previously talking about: 3000mAh=3Ah. That’s it. Once you have that number, multiply it by the C-rating. So if a battery reads “7C” and “3000mAh,” you would convert 3000mAh to 3Ah and multiply it by 7 to get a result of 21A. That is your maximum continuous discharge rate.
When it comes to basic battery safety, you also want to make sure that the wrap on the battery is 100% intact, with no tears or rips. You probably already know that the top of the battery is the positive side, and the bottom is the negative side. What you may not know is that the entire area underneath the wrapper is also negative. If the wrapper is torn and the metal underneath touches something it’s not supposed to, you can end up with the device auto-firing, or the battery venting or hard-shorting. Venting occurs when the battery is punctured, either by something physical or by excessive heat. The gasses inside start to spew out and cause even more heat. Avoid this at all costs. A hard-short occurs when there is no resistance when a circuit is made between the positive and negative sides of a battery. To avoid this, NEVER carry loose batteries. Keys, coins, or other metal objects can shift in a pocket, purse, or backpack and actually create a circuit if they touch the battery in just the right way. When traveling with batteries, always make sure to keep them stored in a designated plastic or fabric battery case.
When a battery vents, ideally you need to let it run its course in an isolated, secure space while someone is prepared to put out a chemical fire with a specific type of extinguisher. Afterwards, the battery must be disposed of properly according to hazardous material standards. Realistically, very few people are prepared for this. The most pragmatic solution is not ideal, but in only requires a glass of tap water. If your battery starts to vent, you should remove the battery as quickly as possible. The longer you wait, the hotter it will get so make sure to not burn yourself and use gloves if you have to. Then, take the battery and submerge it in a glass of tap water or salt water. Make sure the glass is actual glass or ceramic; nothing plastic or paper. Once the battery is submerged, wait for the venting to run its course. The water is actually shorting out the battery by creating a circuit between the positive and negative poles. At the same time, the water is absorbing the heat and keeping the battery relatively safe.
After the battery is done venting, you’re going to have dirty water in a glass, and this is why this solution isn’t perfect. This dirty water is toxic to humans, animals, and the environment. Pouring it down the drain or flushing it down the toilet is damaging to animals and the environment, while keeping it around poses a risk to you and any other living thing in your home. You want to avoid coming into direct contact with the water, and if you’re trying to mitigate as much damage as possible, look to see if any facility exists near you that can properly dispose of the liquid. If you have children or pets, or if you’re simply not comfortable having it in your home, the best solution is to flush it or pour it down a drain. It’s unfortunate, but it will be up to you to weigh the risks of each solution and make an informed decision. The good news is that this whole situation is actually very rare, and there’s a good chance you won’t ever have to deal with it. However, you should know what to do if it does occur.
That should be a good introduction to Ohm’s Law and battery safety. If any of the above information is confusing, I encourage you to watch our video on the subject.
In summary, make sure to follow our guidelines:
Don’t let this information discourage you. Battery failures are very rare in vaping, and virtually non-existent when following safe practices. Plus, this information isn’t exclusive to vaping. The concepts and safety tips above apply to anything that uses lithium ion batteries, including mobile devices, tablets, laptops, etc. Remember, vaping is about reducing certain risks, not eliminating them completely. Nothing is 100% safe, but you can mitigate the maximum amount of risk by arming yourself with knowledge and being safe and smart when vaping.
Master Guide to Vaping Part 9 – Vaping Culture and Etiquette
No matter how long you’ve been vaping for, there are certain unwritten rules that are generally followed. Many of these may seem to be common sense, but you may or may not be surprised how many people seem to ignore common courtesy. Along with vaping etiquette comes the vape culture. Every vaper is a piece of this culture, so even if you don’t participate in cloud competitions or attend conventions, that doesn’t mean you’re alienated from vape culture. On the contrary, it’s a testament as to how varied the culture really is. Before continuing, keep in mind that nothing you will read, particularly with regard to etiquette, will supercede the law or the rules set by private establishments.
Where is it okay to vape? According to science, anywhere! Reputable scientific studies have shown that vapor poses no risk to bystanders when compared to air. But that doesn’t mean ambient vapor isn’t annoying. It’s not harmful to smell bad cologne, stinky breath, or flatulence, but it’s common courtesy to spare your fellow human beings from being subjected to such things. The same goes for vaping. As pleasant as some vapor can smell, and regardless of any health effects or lack thereof, it’s simply not polite to vape near people who don’t appreciate it. There are arguments to be made about vaping in clubs or bars, but each situation requires your own judgment. A good rule of thumb: if you’re not sure it’s okay to vape where you are, you can either ask or simply go outside. Many vapers are opposed to going outside, but think of it this way: by going outside, you avoid the hassle of explaining yourself and possibly confrontation. Most people don’t vape to be trendy or to make a statement, and just want to go about their business. By avoiding a confrontational situation altogether, everyone gets to go about their business without too much hassle.
I like to use the movie theater example. Is it inherently wrong to vape in a movie theater? No. What if the theater is full? Well, in that case it’s probably a good idea to refrain from vaping. In addition to it being rude, it may get in the way of the projector and distract from the movie experience. What if the theater is empty? Since vaping would only affect you, it’s likely okay. However, if you’re asked to stop by staff, or if there are rules in place prohibiting vaping, then it’s not okay. This is why good judgment is important, and it can be difficult for some vapers to see the situation from another perspective. Would a vaper mind if someone is vaping near them? Most likely, no, they wouldn’t. However, a more accurate analogy would be, would a vaper be annoyed if someone sprayed perfume too close to their face? Probably, yes. It doesn’t matter how good the perfume smells, if the perfume has any health effects, or how interested the person spraying it is in perfume; it’s still inconsiderate. So before you vape in public, put yourself in other peoples’ shoes!
Another thing to consider is stealth vaping. By holding the vapor in your lungs for 5-10 seconds, there is little to no vapor on the exhale. Many times, this can be done anywhere without anyone noticing, but again, this may be breaking the laws or rules that are in effect in your location. Most of the time, you can stealth vape and nobody would even know that you’re doing it, but you run the risk of not doing it properly, which defeats the entire purpose. Also, residual heat from the coil can cause vapor to exit from your atomizer, which gives away what you’re doing too. Many people find stealth vaping a good alternative when trying to be courteous. It’s easier to stealth vape when MTL vaping, but it can be done with DL vaping as well. While there is no foolproof guide as to whether stealth vaping is a viable option, it is still important to use good judgment and to be aware if you’ll be breaking any rules.
Speaking of MTL and DL vaping, keep in mind that neither is exempt from common courtesy. If it’s not okay to blow huge DL clouds, it’s probably not okay to MTL either, unless stealth vaping potentially. There’s an ongoing debate in the vape community as to which vape style is “better.” On one hand, DL vapers have been known to sometimes view MTL vapers as inexperienced or unaware that DL vaping exists. On the other hand, there are MTL vapers who simply prefer it over DL vaping, and accuse DL vapers as obnoxious cloud-chasers who only vape to show off. In general, these people are the vocal minority. Either vaping style is fine if it’s better for you. Vapers have enough to worry about without fighting amongst ourselves. That being said, it’s no secret that the majority of vapers prefer DL vaping, which is why so many DL atomizers and high-wattage mods are being produced today. However, there is a wide middle ground where most vapers settle, and that is restricted lung hits. Atomizers designed for restricted lung hits don’t have ridiculous airflow and don’t necessarily produce competition-sized clouds, but they do produce more vapor and have more airflow than MTL vaping.
Keep in mind that different people need different experiences when vaping to get what they need. Some people prefer the hand-to-mouth action to replicate smoking as closely as possible, including how they inhale. Others prefer the actual vapor to be warmer and more voluminous in order to be satisfying. And yet other people prefer something in between. There’s no single correct way to vape, and it’s all about what you prefer. There are also people who stick to vaping mostly because of the community, or because they enjoy cloud competitions. It’s not that they’re “showing off,” it’s that the sense of competition and the hobbyist nature of vaping is the very thing that works for them. The point is, don’t write off fellow vapers just because they have a different preference. We’re all on the same side!
It can be frustrating when rules or laws seem unjust and based on incorrect information. Unfortunately, we are obligated to do so. In situations where there are no clear laws or rules, common sense and courtesy should be observed. Take note of who and what is in your general vicinity and consider what effect vaping will have. When in doubt, either find a new area to vape, stealth vape, or don’t vape at all. As much as we would like to, as vapers we can’t vape wherever we like. If we can’t collectively show that we can vape responsibly, then soon we may not be vaping at all.
On that note, be sure to check out the final chapter of this guide where we’ll be talking about vaping regulation and legislation.
Master Guide to Vaping Part 10 – Regulation and Legislation
For as long as vaping has existed, it has been met with scrutiny and skepticism. While most people are capable of doing research, looking at the results of scientific studies, and making their own decisions, governing bodies have always sought to enact regulation or legislation for one reason or another. Sometimes it’s reasonable, but most of the time it is overreaching, bordering on prohibitionist. While the regulatory climate is currently at a fever pitch due the exponential growth in the popularity of e-cigarettes, advocates have been fighting for consumers’ rights to vape since at least 2009.
In early 2010, it was determined in court that e-cigarettes were not to be regulated as a drug. The FDA was intercepting e-cigarette shipments from China, claiming that they were intended to treat those with nicotine addiction. The court ended up siding with the vapor industry, saying that the FDA could no longer seize shipments, and could only exercise their authority in a similar way to tobacco products. This ruling is the main keystone of current regulation. While it didn’t declare that e-cigarettes were tobacco products in the legal sense, it meant that if vapor products were to be regulated, the FDA would need to do so differently than it does with drugs such as nicotine patches.
In the time between 2010 and May 2016, when the final deeming regulations were published, vaping advocates have been working on combating unfair local and state legislation (and supporting the sensible regulation, such as prohibiting sales to minors), correcting misinformation in the media and on social media, and keeping consumers informed. With little information about the deeming regulations in that 5-year span, there was also little to act on.
The same tired arguments could be heard time and time again, and when one was debunked, another would surface. You’ve likely heard many of these arguments against vapor products more than once:
• E-cigarettes contain toxic levels of formaldehyde.
• E-cigarettes cause cancer.
• E-cigarettes cause popcorn lung.
• E-cigarettes are creating a new generation of nicotine addicts.
• E-cigarettes cause pneumonia.
• E-cigarettes contain anti-freeze.
• E-cigarettes are harmful to bystanders and those exposed to ambient vapor.
Study after study have debunked these claims over the years, but they keep resurfacing. Let’s quickly tackle these point by point:
• E-cigarettes typically only produce harmful levels of formaldehyde when used at power levels so high that it would be rancid for anybody to vape it. It would be harsh and burnt, and anyone who has ever gotten a dry hit knows that not only is it undesirable, but virtually impossible to vape.
• Analog cigarettes cause cancer because of combustion. Organic matter is burned, which produces tar and other chemicals. It’s even been shown that spending too much time around campfires, candles, or incense increase the risk for cancer far more than e-cigarettes. Nicotine, while addictive, is not carcinogenic.
• Popcorn lung is a condition that affects the lungs. It was first discovered/contracted by popcorn factory workers, hence the name. It’s caused by the inhalation of diacetyl, a main component of butter flavoring. The same flavoring can be used in e-cigarettes. However, out of countless popcorn factory workers, only a handful have ever been diagnosed with popcorn lung. Additionally, they were exposed to diacetyl in other forms, not only vapor, and at much higher levels than an e-cigarette could ever produce. Nonetheless, e-liquid manufacturers have taken steps to either eliminate diacetyl from their e-liquids, or at least disclose whether or not certain flavors contain it so that consumers have more information when making their purchasing decisions. Studies done by Dr. Farsalinos have shown that diacetyl is an unnecessary added risk, which is why many e-liquid manufacturers have worked to eliminate it from their e-liquids.
• There is absolutely no evidence that vaping leads to smoking. While more teens than ever are vaping according to study done by the CDC, more adults are also vaping than ever before. Simultaneously, teen smoking is at an all-time low. In an ideal world, nobody would smoke or vape, but we don’t live in some sort of utopia. Given the choice between underage smoking and underage vaping, underage vaping is the lesser of 2 evils. While it certainly cannot be condoned, teen vaping also can never be completely eliminated, just as with underage drinking or smoking. It’s an unfortunate aspect that needs to be accepted given the overwhelming positive consequences of vaping in general.
• Pneumonia isn’t caused by inhaling vapor of any kind. If it were, everyone would have pneumonia since water vapor is in the air. Anyone who entered a sauna would get pneumonia. This is just a baseless attack on vaping with no basis in common sense, let alone science.
• E-cigarettes do not contain anti-freeze, but they do share an ingredient, which can sound bad out of context. Propylene glycol is a main ingredient in e-cigarettes and e-liquid flavorings. Given this information, one could make an analogous argument that food-grade flavoring contains anti-freeze, but that’s not the most egregious part of the argument. Propylene glycol in particular is used in anti-freeze precisely because it’s non-toxic. It mostly replaced ethylene glycol many years ago, which is toxic. In the case of an anti-freeze leak, propylene glycol poses far less risk to animals, pets, the environment, etc.
• A study conducted by Drexel University showed that ambient vapor posed no risk to bystanders. While it is viewed as inconsiderate to vape in close proximity to others, it’s not harmful. Ambient vapor is virtually indistinguishable from air.
Even with vapers and advocates trying to get correct information out there, misconceptions are still rampant. Believe it or not, public perception of vaping is important. Not only that, but legislation has been crafted based on misinformation or even simply doubt as to the safety of vaping.
In the vacuum left by the lack of federal regulation, local and state legislatures began enacting policies to restrict where people could vape, tax vape gear and e-liquid, and restrict sales to minors. The intensity of these laws varies across the country from reasonable, to ridiculous, to unconstitutional. Indiana in particular recently had a policy overturned that put the majority of e-liquid manufacturers out of business, although not before the damage was already done. Not only can unreasonable regulation affect public health, but also the economy by putting companies out of business and people out of work.
As of May 2016, the FDA deeming regulation has started to come into effect. The original document is 499 pages long, but the main points of it are clear. When attempting to comply with FDA regulations, there are 3 avenues that a tobacco product can take: substantial equivalence (SE), substantial equivalence exemption, and premarket tobacco application (PMTA). SE must prove that a new or modified tobacco product is basically the same (substantially equivalent) to a product that was available on the market before 2007. Substantial equivalence exemption still requires a product to be on the market before February 2007, but that product must have not been altered in any significant way. PMTA is the only path relevant to vaping, which is a new product, and legally a tobacco product as of May 10, 2016. Unfortunately, the PMTA process is prohibitively expensive and time-consuming, resulting in a de-facto ban on 99% of vapor products.
To put this in perspective, let’s say a company carries 300 unique products in terms of hardware. That includes batteries, mods, atomizers, tanks, kits, and even cotton and wire. These all are now considered tobacco products since they’re to be used in the context of vaping. In addition, said company also has 50 e-liquid flavors available in 3 bottle sizes, 5 nicotine strengths, and 3 PG/VG ratios. Each variation of e-liquid sold counts as a separate product, and requires a separate application. Between hardware and e-liquid, this company must submit 2550 applications. There may be ways to combine different bottle sizes or nicotine strengths into a single application, but it’s all very vague as to what companies will actually be allowed to do. For each e-liquid PMTA, extensive toxicology and population studies must be done, the latter of which could take years to gather acceptable data. Many vapor companies are relatively small, yet have the largest burden to bear when it comes to weathering the storm of regulation.
Consider a tobacco company that has recently started selling disposables. They offer 2 flavors and 2 nicotine strengths for a total of 4 products. Not only do they only need to submit 4 applications, but the e-cigarettes they manufacture are generally much more straightforward. Additionally, they have hundreds of millions, if not billions of dollars to spend on these applications, more experience dealing with the government, and more manpower.
All this culminates in an obvious end result. If left unchecked, the FDA deeming regulations will put nearly every vape company out of business, remove nearly every quality product from the market, and leave only Big Tobacco and cigalikes standing. It will likely also create a black market. Chinese companies that manufacture vapor products will still have incentive to create new products to sell in other markets, which means they will eventually end up in the US somehow. The scarcity of vapor products and the increased prices will also likely cause vapers to turn, or return, to smoking.
This is why advocacy is so important. Anyone who vapes or cares about public health and the agencies in place that are supposed to safeguard it should take interest and take action. As it stands, the FDA expects the industry to adhere to standards far stricter than those imposed on tobacco cigarettes, and feels the responsibility of consumer choice is too much for the average person. The consequences of the current regulations seem to make no sense, and it’s up to each person to make it known, loud and clear, that there are concerns. Vaping has science on its side, and with a reasonable approach, an effective society and government should be able to come up with fair and sensible regulations for vaping.
The best thing for the average person to do is to follow CASAA and Not Blowing Smoke, two advocacy groups that consistently provide good information and ways to take action. While vendors like Madvapes are working to comply with regulation, advocacy groups and consumers are pursuing every avenue to try and get new legislation in place to mitigate the damage that the FDA deeming regulations will do. Madvapes is currently meeting with congressmen as well as the FDA in person in order to present our case for changing the current regulations, but the combined voice of consumers can be just as loud. Even though some companies have already fallen victim to the regulations (most notably the legendary Provape, makers of the ProVari), it’s not too late for everyone to do their parts and take action!
Currently, the most important thing is to contact your representatives and voice your support of HR 1136. With the current regulation, any “tobacco” product introduced to the market after February 2007 must have an application submitted through the previously mentioned PMTA process. HR 1136 aims to change this date, which would allow products currently on the market to stay on the market without needing PMTA approval. This isn’t a catch-all solution, but it’s an excellent start towards changing the FDA deeming regulations.
The more people that are active in advocacy, the more effective it is. I encourage you to keep up to date with the latest developments, follow CASAA and Not Blowing Smoke and respond to any and all of their Calls to Action, and voice your support of HR 1136. Vaping is likely to be around for a long time to come, but it’s up to each of us to determine whether it will be a dangerous, expensive, and illegal black market or an affordable, legitimate, and life-changing industry.