Madvapes Master Guide to Vaping

History of Vaping (Generations of Vapes) – Part Two

Master Guide to Vaping – Part 2

Vaping: Generations

Vaping has come a long way since 2007. I’d venture to guess that the majority of current vapers started vaping well after some serious innovations occurred in the vaping industry. While some of us remember replacing cartridge filler with blue aquarium filter and 1.5Ω “low-resistance” atomizers fondly as a right-of-passage, it’s important for newer vapers to understand where it all started. By reflecting on generations of vaping technology past, it’s easier to understand how current technology came to be and why it works the way it does.

Generation 1


The first e-cigarettes were almost exclusively cig-a-likes. Generally of poor quality, these early models’ greatest contribution was mostly to spark interest and act as a proof-of-concept demonstrating the potential of vape devices. Short battery life, poor vapor production, bottom-of-the-barrel e-liquid, and rampant defects prevented Gen. 1 e-cigarettes from becoming wildly popular. In addition, there were few, if any, American vendors at the time, which made acquiring early e-cigarettes much more difficult for many people. Most hardware and e-liquid was manufactured in China. Not to mention, brick-and-mortar shops were nonexistent. With e-cigarettes being of such poor quality and difficult to obtain, it would be several more years before vapor products started to gain traction.
Gen. 1 e-cigarettes were mostly three pieces: the battery, the atomizer, and the cartridge. The atomizer screwed into the battery, and the cartridge was press-fit into the atomizer. The cartridge would be pre-filled with e-liquid, which would feed into the atomizer. The juice capacity was generally 8-12 drops, and would last about the same amount of time as an analogue; about 20 puffs. The atomizer featured a “bridge,” which was a piece of stainless steel mesh which protruded into the cartridge and fed e-liquid to the coil. Some cartridges could be refilled, but with e-liquid being hard to find and relatively expensive, it was much more convenient to purchase replacement pre-filled cartridges. The absorbent material within the cartridge, “polyfill,” would gradually get matted and worn out, contributing to reduced wicking and poor performance. In addition, strands of polyfill fiber would get tangled in the bridge, making for a mess overall.

Some of the more clever vapers at the time discovered that blue aquarium filter worked much better. It was cheaper than replacing cartridges, and had a texture similar to a sponge except it was more porous. With no strands and resistance to matting, “blue foam” is one of the first examples of user modification to e-cigarettes, and it led to more innovation further down the road.

Some vapers weren’t satisfied with early cigalikes whatsoever, and determined that they could make better ones themselves. E-cigarettes are literally the simplest electronic device that’s possible to make. It’s a power source, a resistor, and a switch at it’s most basic form. To combat the short battery life of a cigalike, some vapers modified flashlights. Not only did flashlights already run off of a similar battery, but the switch was already included. All that was required was to swap out the bulb with threading that would be compatible with an atomizer. The end result was a “mod,” which is a term the industry still uses to describe the majority of vaping devices. These early flashlight mods used a battery with the same chemistry as cigalikes, but could have up to 10x the battery life. In addition, these batteries were readily available, relatively inexpensive, and could be swapped out when depleted and recharged externally.
Eventually, vapers started getting more creative. Being that e-cigarettes were so simple, you could make a mod out of almost anything. People started using project boxes and battery boxes, wiring in their own custom switches, and sometimes even experimenting with potentiometers to incorporate variable voltage functionality.
Around this time, the first dedicated vape shops started opening online. Many sold their own custom mods, e-liquid, and cigalikes imported from China. With the American e-cigarette market starting to develop, variety and quality of vape devices started to improve, and innovation ignited.

Generation 2

After a round of feedback of Gen. 1 products, Gen. 2 saw a huge increase in variety, but not necessarily in quantity. Variable voltage devices were few and far between, and cigalikes still dominated the market. Marketing, especially on the internet, grew and saw the rise of some well-known cigalike brands that still exist today.
While some found satisfaction in mods, many people found them either prohibitively expensive given the quality and reliability, or too gaudy to be practical. As such, mods remained a niche market while cigalikes and eGo-style devices found their place among the majority of vapers. An increase in the size of the battery of the eGo sparked the beginning of the migration from cigalikes. While cigalikes always had and will have their place, they will never be as popular as they were in Gen.1 and Gen. 2.

With the advent of the eGo, many new atomizers became popular, such as clearomizers and cartomizers. Cartomizers were similar in appearance to atomizers, but were single components which were filled with liquid, but also included a coil. Although they were meant to be disposable, cartomizers were easy to refill and lasted just as long as atomizers for a fraction of the price. And because of larger batteries entering the market, cartomizers were available in many different sizes, allowing vapers to find their own preferred balance between size and capacity.
Shortly after, clearomizers hit the market. These found popularity mainly due to the selection of colors and the ability to see how much liquid was remaining. Clearomizers were generally made of plastic and were very cheap and easily damaged. Yet, they were cheap enough that most vapers didn’t mind buying replacements. After a time, clearomizers with replaceable coils came to market. These top-coil clearomizers were the first atomizers to allow the replacement of coils without having to replace the entire atomizer; a design still popular today. Gen.1 atomizers were still popular among a select few, although most had replaced the cartridge with a drip tip. Instead of filling a cartridge, you would drip 2-4 drops right onto the atomizer through the mouthpiece. This arguably offered the best flavor at the cost of convenience, but it’s where the term “drip tip” comes from. The majority of mouthpieces are no longer used to drip, but are still referred to as “drip tips.”
During this time, rebuildable atomizers, or RBAs, began to emerge out of a desire for a higher quality experience. Throughout vaping’s history, the advancement of RBAs has run parallel to that of other atomizers and devices. Genesis tanks and a few dripping atomizers were the only styles available at the time, and were generally expensive and difficult to set up. The 2 main drawbacks of RBAs were cost of entry and learning curve. The initial cost was usually offset by the reduced price of upkeep, as wicking material and wire were cheaper than having to continuously buy and replace coils.
Early rebuildable dripping atomizers (RDAs) were more well-made than cartomizers and clearomizers of the time, but nowhere near what exists today. Being more rare and generally made in smaller batches, it wasn’t uncommon for RDAs to cost upwards of $100. However, they were the cornerstone of vaping innovation and many of today’s atomizers owe their inspiration to vapers who took the leap and began experimenting early. Many found the price and learning curve for an RBA was a fair price to pay for the best vape experience of the time. Some would argue this still applies today.
On the other end of the RBA spectrum, we have rebuildable tank atomizers (RTAs). The first RTA design was the Genesis. Genesis tanks were notoriously difficult to build, tended to leak if not held upright, and required a perfectly horizontal orientation when being used. They required the use of a stainless steel mesh wick, which had to be oxidized first in order to make sure it was non-conductive. Genesis tanks were top-coil tanks, and e-liquid had to travel up the stainless steel wick to the coil, which is why it needed to be tilted 90 degrees when vaping. But again, all these drawbacks were reasonable for many vapers back then because of the exceptional flavor when built correctly.

Keep in mind, lung-hitting, or direct-lung vaping, was not conceived of at this time. Virtually every atomizer was created with small, non-adjustable airflow, and that’s the general theme of Gen. 2. Vaping starts to move away from cigalikes and towards eGos and mods. RBAs make their first appearance. Cartomizers and clearomizers explode in popularity and lay the foundation for how atomizers work. In addition, variable voltage, and later variable wattage, become the standard for many mods. Cigalikes and eGo batteries were fixed at a constant 3.7V, requiring you to buy atomizers of varying resistances to get more or less vapor and heat. With variable voltage, resistance options became less important since you could adjust your heat on the mod itself. Soon after, variable wattage began to overtake variable voltage, mostly for convenience and consistency purposes. Either increasing voltage or decreasing resistance is a somewhat roundabout way of increasing wattage, or power. Variable wattage mods ensured that you experience the same vape with every drag, compensating for small fluctuations in resistance due to heat, or even allowing you to change atomizers without adjusting any settings.
Most variable voltage and variable wattage mods at the time were tube-shaped, with a select few box mods being custom-made by hobbyist or enthusiast vapers on a small scale, and sometimes being sold online. Most variable mods were expected to meet a few unwritten guidelines, such as firing from 3W to 15W and/or 3V to 6V, requiring atomizers to be 1.2Ω or higher, and having an amp limit of 2.5A. These specifications were perfectly fine for 99% of atomizers at the time, but towards the end of Gen. 2, rebuilding started to take off due to the advent of sub-ohm vaping.
Rebuilders were coming up with new ways to improve their vape experience by modifying their atomizers, particularly the airflow. It wasn’t long before drilling out larger airflow holes, dropping nicotine strengths, and lung-hitting became the go-to vaping style for enthusiasts. In order to maximize vapor production, rebuilders also started building sub-ohm coils, or coils with resistances lower than 1Ω. Since regulated mods only fired resistances down to 1.2Ω, vapers started seeking out unregulated mods, particularly mechanical mods. Mechanical mods are made with no wiring, and use craftsmanship and a mechanical switch to provide power directly from the battery to the atomizer. With no board to regulate the device, resistances are only limited by what is safe for the battery. Due to the technical knowledge required to safely use mechanical mods with sub-ohm coils, sub-ohm vaping wasn’t popular with the majority of vapers. But like many other aspects of Gen. 2, the classic mech-and-RDA setup laid the groundwork for many of the trends we see today. Thus begins the transition into Gen. 3.

Generation 3

Gen. 3 sees the further development of Gen. 2 technology. Cartomizers get improved with an additional coil, and are modified to fit into tanks, called DCTs. Clearomizers have their coils moved from the top of the tank to the bottom, alleviating many of the dry hits by improving wicking. RBAs continue to improve and gain popularity, and mechanical mods surge in popularity. Gen. 3 also saw the largest increase in people taking up vaping, due to the quality and variety of vaping devices which now started truly meeting expectations.
Bottom-coil clearomizers and RBAs dominated Gen. 3. For the mass market, bottom-coil clearomizers offered a nearly endless variety of shapes, colors, coils, etc. Over time, many plastic clearomizers were replaced with glass. In addition, larger varieties (tanks) became popular, and would eventually replace clearomizers for most vapers. With tanks and clearomizers lasting longer due to better build quality, coil technology was able to flourish. Many manufacturers designed their own proprietary coils, with each claiming to be the best, and while many vapers eventually found their favorites, most coils were very similar. The overall design wouldn’t change drastically until Gen. 4, but Gen. 3 did see an increase in coil consistency, along with improvements designed to reduce leaking.
Meanwhile, mechanical mods and RBAs were all the rage, as this was the only way to effectively vape sub-ohm. RDAs began offering much wider airflow that didn’t require modification to blow clouds. Chinese manufacturers had a hard time keeping up with innovation, and rarely produced quality RDAs or mechanical mods, which required a level of craftsmanship that China just wasn’t equipped for. As a result, authentic mechanical mods and RBAs were very expensive, with mods costing upwards of $200 and atomizers costing $80 at a minimum. In a rush to capture the market, China began cloning authentic mods and atomizers. For a fraction of the price, you could experience high-end vaping at the cost of build quality. For many vapers, this was the only option since few people had the resources to spend $250 on a new setup.
Batteries, and 18650 batteries in particular, became the single-most popular battery size and the technology needed to improve in order to keep up with vaping. With people vaping lower and lower resistances, batteries needed higher amp limits to remain safe. While high-amp batteries generally had a low capacity at first, over time, developments in battery chemistry have allowed capacity to almost double while retaining the same 20A – 30A limit.

However, even with being able to get everything you needed to vape sub-ohm affordably, many people just weren’t familiar with how to do it, and do it safely. There was no shortage of guides on the internet, but some people just weren’t comfortable with it, and it remained this way for over a year. You had the enthusiast market who used mechanical mods and RDAs, and had a working knowledge of Ohm’s Law and battery safety. Everyone else was using variable mods or eGo-style devices, cartomizers, clearomizers, or tanks. The enthusiasts were mostly cloud chasers, and everyone else was stuck with mouth-to-lung vaping.
Of course, there were some exceptions such as the Kayfun. The Kayfun was a rebuildable tank (one of the first that wasn’t Genesis-style) which was completely geared towards flavor and MTL vaping. Most RDAs at the time could also be built to a higher resistance with the airflow closed off in order to MTL, but they were primarily designed for DL vaping.
Eventually, 2 and 2 finally added up to 4, and 2 things happened: first, variable mods that could fire sub-ohm were made available, and would become more affordable over time, and sub-ohm vaping would come to the mass market with the introduction of Aspire’s Atlantis tank: the first sub-ohm tank, and it would change the vaping market completely.

Generation 4

Make no mistake, the Aspire Atlantis was a game-changer. It was the first atomizer made to be lung-hit, and it didn’t require any knowledge of rebuilding. It worked the same way as bottom-coil clearomizers, except the airflow and coils were much larger to allow for lung-hitting and increased vapor production. The Atlantis finally allowed non-enthusiast vapers to get the cloud production of a rebuildable, but in a tank that they were already familiar with how to use and without having to dedicate time to learning how to rebuild.
The initial problem with the Atlantis was that sub-ohm regulated mods were still in their infancy. Any of these devices that were of good quality were expensive, and cheaper versions had their fair share of problems. Of course, mechanical mods were still an option, having the best quality in relation to price, but many people were already accustomed to regulated mods and didn’t like mechanical mods for one reason or another. Some people didn’t like the sense of the vape getting weaker as the battery died. Some liked the convenience of being able to turn the device off. Whatever the reason, mechanical mods surged in popularity for a short while, until regulated mod technology was able to catch up.

Eventually, mods began to fire lower resistances at higher wattages. With the Atlantis needing at least 30 watts of power, the standard 15-watt device simply wouldn’t work. In addition, the standard Atlantis coils were 0.5Ω, much lower than the Gen. 1-3 minimum for most mods: 1.2Ω. Almost all of the mods we see today are derivative of these early “high-wattage” mods. They generally had 3 buttons and a screen, and would fire sub-ohm coils. This began the “wattage wars,” or the time when every company was trying to create a mod that would fire higher and higher wattages. At the same time, every manufacturer wanted to copy the Atlantis, and even improve upon it. With different coils needing more and more power, mods also needed more and more power. The wattage wars are just now starting to slow down, with sub-ohm tanks using coils that work up to 220W, and mods that use multiple batteries in order to provide up to 300W of power.

What’s ironic is that the overall design of the Atlantis coils (and most of the coils that came after) is based on the Gen. 2 cartomizer. Instead of a wick going through the coil, it’s wrapped around it. The big differences between the 2 is that sub-ohm coils are much larger to allow for more airflow, and the wicking material is organic cotton instead of polyfill. Organic cotton wick was made popular with rebuildables in Gen. 3. Unlike standard silica wick, cotton can burn when dry, but it provides better flavor, was easier to find for purchase, and was significantly cheaper. Nowadays, silica wick is virtually unheard of.
At this point in Gen. 4, we have high-wattage mods and sub-ohm tanks that are improving every day. Airflow of sub-ohm tanks continues to get larger and larger, as do their replacement coils. Also, the number of coils within the replacement increases, and currently you can find premade coils for sub-ohm tanks housing up to 10 coils. The quality and reliability of mods increases significantly, while price simultaneously drops. Even starter kits are starting to come with sub-ohm tanks. Basically what we are starting to see is a homogenization of products. Mods can fire virtually anything and are reasonably priced. Sub-ohm tanks make large strides over the Atlantis, and even start to offer special coils made for MTL vaping, meaning that a single tank can cater to multiple vaping styles.
Now we’re starting to overlap a bit with the current generation: Gen. 5.

Generation 5

Generation 5 very may well be the final generation for vaping products because of both a lack of new technology, and the FDA Deeming Regulations which only exacerbates the technology stagnation. However, one very important development inherent to Gen. 5 is temperature control. While temperature control was technically born in Gen. 4, it was more of a gimmick until Gen. 5, where it became viable.
What exactly is temperature control? In short, a mod can control the temperature of the coil, in addition to being able to regulate the power. All wire used for coils actually increases in resistance when heated, some more than others. For example, nickel’s resistance changes drastically with heat, while Kanthal hardly changes resistance at all. Temperature control measures this change in resistance in order to calculate temperature, and the final product is burn prevention. Temperature control is specifically designed to eliminate dry hits and burning.
Nickel was the first wire to be used for temperature control since the resistance changes more than any other wire when heated. There were some health concerns with using nickel, but given the nature of temperature control, nickel couldn’t get hot enough when used properly to be harmful. Nevertheless, some vapers weren’t comfortable using nickel. In response, titanium and stainless steel wire became popular. Over time, every mod would offer temperature control for nickel, titanium, and stainless steel in addition to the classic variable wattage.
Temperature control is basically a standard feature on variable mods these days. Some people love it and some people hate it, but it’s most likely going on be possible on any modern regulated device. Most experienced vapers don’t have a problem with dry hits when using variable wattage, and so don’t find any value in temperature control. Others like having the extra peace of mind, or just enjoy the unique sensation that vaping with temperature control offers.

Sub-ohm tanks are currently the most popular type of atomizer, and many share certain qualities. The majority of modern sub-ohm tanks are filled from the top and use similar coils that haven’t changed much since the Atlantis. In addition, even flavor chasers mostly lung-hit nowadays, albeit with more restricted airflow compared to cloud chasers. Many sub-ohm tanks also offer a coil that can be rebuilt. A handful of tanks offered this in Gen. 4, but the RBA decks were generally finicky, and served more as a backup or something to tinker with. Now, RBA decks are good enough to rival dedicated RTAs.
Dedicated RTAs have also come a long way, with more airflow, reduced leaking, and top-filling. Even Genesis-style tanks have made a comeback, although they more closely resemble RDAs with large juice wells than classic Genesis tanks. RTAs come in all shapes and sizes, with varying airflow designed for either flavor chasing or cloud chasing, and some work well for both.
RDAs have also been perfected, and offer some of the widest variety when it comes to vaping products. The simple premise of a dripper allows designers and manufacturers to get creative, offering all kinds of different airflow options and deck varieties. In general, RDAs are some of the easiest atomizers to rebuild, and there’s no shortage of wire types and vaping styles. If you can deal with the inherent relative messiness and the lack of e-liquid capacity, RDAs offer some of the best flavor and vapor production possible.
Rebuildables in general have never been more accessible, in no small part due to the fact that they are competing with sub-ohm tanks. They’re inexpensive, well-made, easy to find, and simple to build with minimal investment and learning curve.

Unfortunately, on May 10, 2016 the FDA released the Deeming Regulations. We’ll get more into detail about that in a future article, but the most immediate effect is that no new products can enter the US market after August 8, 2016. The good news is that vape technology has reached a plateau. We have mods that can do virtually anything at reasonable prices and in all shapes and sizes suited to any vaper. We have a myriad of atomizers, many of which are able to satisfy multiple vape styles. Starter kits have never been more versatile, with many consisting of a single piece and allowing new vapers to, again, experience multiple vaping styles in order to determine which they prefer before upgrading. The vape industry is well past the point where every product needs to be treated with skepticism as to whether they’ll even work or not. 99% of the products on the market work as intended, and the only thing left to determine is which one works best for you.
That catches us up to current day, and that doesn’t even touch upon everything. Vaping began as an underground, niche product that had huge potential but didn’t work very well. It’s been nothing but non-stop improvement and innovation since 2007, and now is finally starting to stall out. In only 10 years, vaping has become a worldwide phenomenon. For as many products that are out there, there are just as many vapers. There truly is something for everybody if you know where to look. From devices that almost perfectly replicate an analog cigarette experience, to devices that are more comparable with fog machines, vaping has become a sprawling landscape of atomizers and mods. While people who started vaping in Gen. 1 or Gen. 2 remember that time with fondness, vapers who’ve just started recently and curious non-vapers alike might find it interesting to know where vaping started and how far it’s come. Take a close look at the newest device or atomizer, and you’ll start to see remnants of an era of vaping long past.

Madvapes Master Guide to Vaping

Advanced Devices – Part Six

Master Guide to Vaping Part 6 – Advanced Devices

Advanced devices generally have similar functionality compared to intermediate devices. Sometimes they’ll have a few extra bells and whistles, but mostly offer higher consistent power and longer battery life, mainly due to the fact that advanced devices usually require multiple batteries. More batteries means a longer period of time between charges, and the ability to fire at a higher power without the device scaling back due to lack of battery voltage and less current per battery. Nowadays, advanced devices function exactly the same way as intermediate devices, except the majority require separate batteries, a separate charger, and generally cost a bit more. Eventually, many people find that the advantages of owning such a device are well-worth the cost.
So what are the advantages and why to they justify the higher price? We already mentioned a couple of them above; more battery life and more consistent power. But what does that mean for you practically? First, it opens up the number of atomizers you can use. More robust sub-ohm tanks and rebuildables can require anywhere from 50W to 250W: power levels single-battery devices just can’t handle. Alternatively, you can choose a tank that requires a low power, and get insane battery life! Depending on the specific advice, some more advanced devices will let you use temperature control with different wire types, or customize more settings when it comes to temperature control.

Advanced devices usually mean a larger size, which is mostly determined by how many batteries it requires. Of course, there are some single-battery intermediate mods which are larger than dual-battery advanced mods, but those are the exceptions. For the most part, you can expect advanced mods to be some of the largest devices you can find. Many are still designed to be comfortable and ergonomic, but remember that these mods are focusing on power and quality over convenience. However, few people jump into vaping and go straight to advanced devices and therefore have a separate device to use as a backup or something to travel with when convenience needs to take priority.

If you had to pick one device to use exclusively, an advanced mod is the best choice. They have the ability to fire almost any atomizer, and are some of the most well-made devices on the market. Generally, you’ll be basing your purchasing decision on aesthetics, build quality, and maximum power/number of batteries. Also, if you want delve more deeply into the features, the chip that the mod uses may also be a factor. Some boards actually fire differently, and although subtle, it can affect the way a particular atomizer vapes. Boards like the DNA200, FSK chip, and SX series are some of the most revered and coveted due to the reliability, wide range of features, customization potential, and consistency of the vape quality.

So you’re probably wondering when you should consider an advanced mod over something intermediate. If you’re a heavy vaper, an advanced mod will give you more battery life, which is more convenient if you find yourself unable to charge your batteries for long periods of time. If your device uses removable 18650 batteries, as most do, you can bring extra batteries along with you too, but depending on how many batteries your device needs, how much you vape, and what resistance/power your setup is running at, this might not even be necessary. If you want to use certain sub-ohm tanks, or at least would like the option of using them optimally, the higher power offered by advanced devices is necessary. Even if you use a lower-power atomizer but want to “future-proof” your setup, an advanced device is the best way to do that. Remember, just because your mod is capable of 200W doesn’t mean that it won’t work just as well at 20W.
Not even a year ago, I could have told you that advanced devices offer the latest vaping technology and are the most difficult to use. With the innovation plateau that the industry is currently experiencing, this is no longer true. Today, advanced devices are just as easy to use as intermediate devices. Conversely, many of the features available in advanced mods are available in intermediate devices, and even some starter kits. The key difference is the reliability. While certain starter kits may be able to do things like temperature control, an advanced mod will be able to do it better. The temperature will be more accurate, you’ll be able to change your temperature more precisely, etc.

In conclusion, advanced devices will give you the maximum versatility you can achieve in vaping. They work with anything, have the most features, and generally have the best battery life. In theory, they’ll last longer and are better-made. Additionally, there’s not really a reason to be intimidated anymore; “advanced” isn’t synonymous with “difficult,” as most are relatively easy to use compared to intermediate-level devices. While intermediate devices and kits will generally be more compact, advanced devices emphasize power and performance over size, and that’s the main difference to consider. Also, consider that since many advanced devices are larger, they’re much better-suited towards larger atomizers, particularly those with 24mm or 25mm diameters. With such atomizers becoming more popular and numerous because of the increased capacity, coil size, and power requirements, this is just one more reason to consider a larger multi-battery mod.
Madvapes offers a wide selection of advanced devices that represent the best of what vaping has to offer. This includes the Reuleaux RX300, Sigelei Fuchai 213, and the Alien 220, just to name a few. So when you’re ready to get the best vape experience currently possible, be sure to check out and remember, we price match! We already offer some of the lowest prices on the internet, but if you find a lower price from an eligible website, we’ll match it! If you’re looking for a worthwhile upgrade or to just add another great mod to your collection, our “Mod” category is where you want to look.

Madvapes Master Guide to Vaping

Battery Safety & Understanding Ohm’s Law -Part Eight

Master Guide to Vaping Part 8 – Ohm’s Law and Battery Safety

Battery safety and Ohm’s Law go hand-in-hand. You can’t learn one without the other, so this guide will require some rudimentary math skills. Overall, many of the concepts you’re about to learn are simple, and the safe practices are mostly common sense once you have a basic understanding. No doubt, you’ve heard of stories about batteries exploding. After reading this guide you’ll have a good idea as to how you can prevent personal injury, property damage, and possibly ending up on the news.
The majority of safety concerns pertain to removable batteries. Mods with internal batteries are inherently safer, despite their drawbacks. So the first thing we need to do is explore the batteries themselves.
The most common battery used in vaping is the 18650 battery. The number “18650” refers to its size; “18” denotes that it is 18mm in diameter, “65” means it has a height of 65mm, and the “0” simply means it’s round or cylindrical. So a 26650 battery is 26mm in diameter and 65mm tall, a 20500 battery is 20mm in diameter and 50mm tall, and so on and so forth.
18650 batteries use lithium ion chemistry, as do the majority of rechargeable batteries. Different batteries may use slightly different chemistries to increase capacity or current rating, but they all use some type of lithium ion. The most common used in vaping is the IMR battery, or LiMn. This stands for lithium manganese, but with vaping becoming more popular and devices becoming more demanding, many manufacturers have built upon IMR technology and created proprietary blends. However, the chemistry isn’t as important as the specifications, which we’ll address shortly. The only chemistry that should stand out is ICR, or LiCo which uses lithium cobalt. These are the original batteries used in flashlights when mods were first being made, and therefore found their way into early vaping devices. Back then, devices required less power and atomizers were built with higher resistances, so ICR technology was fine. Today, however, you want to avoid ICR batteries at all costs. They offer the highest battery capacity, but also produce the most violent reaction when they fail.

Most all lithium ion batteries are rated for 3.7V, but this is an average. Fully charged, they will output 4.2V, and below 3.2V they may become damaged and never work again. You may stumble upon 4.35V lithium ion batteries when shopping around, but these are not suited to vaping. The higher voltage will result in absolutely no advantage, and may even damage your device.
The next important number is the capacity, measured either in milliamp-hours (mAh) or watt-hours (wH). In vaping, mAh is the more common number to see, but it has no absolute value. This is to say, it’s impossible to gauge how long the battery will last with that information alone. In order to get a sense of how long any given battery will last, you would need to have used a battery previously, and also guesstimate based on your atomizer’s resistance and the voltage or wattage you’re using. A good rule of thumb is that for every 100mAh, you can expect 1 hour of constant use with a 2.4Ω coil at 3.7V. Constant use means simply using your device normally for an hour, not holding the fire button down for an hour. Of course, this also depends on the length of your draw and how often you take a drag, so you can already see how mAh requires some previous vaping experience in order for you to get an idea how long a particular battery will last for you.
Watt-hours are much more straightforward, but rarely used. 1 Wh means that a battery will last 1 hour when used at 1W, and that’s 1 total hour of power, not the above-mentioned “constant use.” By using an online calculator, you can convert mAh to Wh easily. As an example, a 3000mAh lithium ion battery equates to 11.1Wh. This means that you’ll get 1 hour of vape time at 11.1W. From there, you can estimate your battery life. Let’s say you vape at 30W. Since you’ll get 1 hour of vape time at 11.1W, and 30W is approximately three times that number, you can expect to get about 1/3 of an hour of vape time at 30W, which is about 20 minutes. If each drag you take is 5 seconds, that means for every minute of vape time you take 12 drags. 12 drags multiplied by 20 minutes means you can take 120 drags with a 3000mAh battery when the device is set to 30W and drags are 5 seconds long. As you can see, this is a much more precise way of gauging battery life. All you need to know is the mAh rating and voltage of your battery (or watt-hours, if that information is available), and what wattage you’ll be vaping at. But what about mods that use more than one battery?

First, it’s important to know the difference between batteries in series and batteries in parallel. Batteries in series are sometimes referred to as “stacked,” so imagine two batteries stacked on top of one another. In this configuration, the natural voltage of the total circuit is doubled if there are two batteries in the circuit. The mAh rating and maximum current remain the same. In parallel, multiple batteries are oriented with the same polarity. With two batteries, the mAh rating and maximum current are doubled, but the voltage remains the same as a single battery; in this case, 3.7V.
If you’re calculating watt-hours for a multi-battery mod where the batteries are in series, the mAh rating you’ll input into the calculator will be the mAh rating of a single battery, and the voltage will be 3.7V multiplied by the number of batteries. For example, if you’re using three 3000mAh batteries in series in a Reuleaux RX200, you would input 3000mAh and 11.1V into the calculator and let it convert that to watt-hours. Alternatively, if you’re using the same three batteries in parallel, you would input 9000mAh and 3.7V. Coincidentally, you will get 33.3Wh with both calculations. In a regulated mod, battery life is the same when using the same batteries regardless of whether they are in series or in parallel.
If that doesn’t make sense to you, don’t worry. It doesn’t necessarily pertain to battery safety. However, if you’re interested in delving deeper into the world of batteries or want to more accurately predict battery life, it’s useful information.

The most important number when it comes to battery safety is the maximum discharge rate. This information is usually available right on the battery wrapper or from the store or website you bought the battery from. Batteries designed for vaping usually go out of their way to make this information as prominent as possible, and if you can’t find this information, play it safe and don’t use that battery for vaping. Current is the amount of electricity in a circuit, and drawing too much from a battery is dangerous. The battery is liable to heat up or even explode if its current rating is exceeded.
Modern mods generally will have some sort of documentation telling you what the current rating of your battery should be, so all you need to do is find a battery that meets or exceeds this number. However, the recommended current rating on a mod is generally based on the maximum wattage and minimum resistance that it can handle. The documentation might recommend 30A batteries, and the mod is capable of firing at 200W down to a resistance of 0.1Ω. If you plan on vaping at 50W with a 0.3Ω resistance, a 20A battery with a 3000mAh capacity will still be safe.
Knowing all that, we can now talk about Ohm’s Law. Ohm’s Law applies mostly to unregulated and mechanical mods. Because there is no board between the battery and the coil, there is nothing to protect you if you exceed the current rating. Ohm’s Law states that voltage is equivalent to the current multiplied by the resistance, or:

V=IR, where V=Voltage, I=Current, and R=Resistance

With some basic algebra, it also states:

I=V/R and

In most cases, you’ll be trying to find the safest resistance you can use based on what battery you have. V should always be 4.2V. Even though the battery is rated for 3.7V, it increased to 4.2V on a full charge. As for the current, I, that information should be known. If it’s not, again, find a new battery to use where you know the maximum continuous discharge rate. 20A is a common value, so let’s use that. Since we’re trying to find resistance, R, we’re going to use R=V/I. We know the voltage and current, so plug those numbers in:


Easy! The minimum resistance you can safely use with a 20A battery in an unregulated mod is 0.21Ω. You can even avoid doing the math altogether by using an online calculator. Just plug in the numbers that are known, voltage and current rating, and it will calculate the minimum safe resistance for you.
You might be wondering where power, or wattage, comes in. To find wattage, you need to know the voltage and the resistance:


Again, plug in the numbers and get the result. Alternatively, use an online calculator.

P= (4.2V*4.2V)/0.21Ω

Most any mod nowadays is adjusted in wattage, so you won’t really need to do this calculation since wattage will always be known. However, when it comes to figuring out how much current you’re pulling from your batteries in a regulated mod, the above formula becomes relevant.
In a regulated mod, the wattage is split between how many batteries there are. For example, if your mod is using two batteries and you’re vaping at 80W, each battery is carrying the strain of 40W. As a rule of thumb, a single battery works best at 50W or less. Higher than 50W isn’t necessarily dangerous, but battery life will be short, and performance will suffer, especially if you’re vaping sub-ohm. But how can we determine how much current is being pulled from each battery. More math!
To find the current, we need to know the resistance and the voltage. The resistance is easy to find. It will be printed on the coil you are using, or you can test a coil you’ve built yourself on an ohm meter. Voltage is a little tricky. Since we know P and R and are looking for V, we need to use algebra to make the P=(V*V)/R formula work for us:


In English, you’re going to multiply the wattage by the resistance, then take the square root of that number. The result will be your voltage. Since we want to find the current of each of the two batteries, we’re going to use 40W, which is 80W split between the two batteries:


Even though each battery is not actually getting 2.9V in practice, we’re using this number to get the actual current value of each battery. Now that we have values for V and R, we can figure out I:


There you have it! In a regulated mod set to 80W where a 0.21Ω atomizer is being used, you’re getting 13.8A, well below the 20A rating of your battery. And you thought middle school algebra was useless!
Rest assured, you won’t need to do any of this math on a regular basis. Once you find batteries and mods that you know are safe with a given resistance and how you like to vape, it will all become second nature. Additionally, many mods will simply tell you most of this information on the display, but if you’re planning on giving unregulated or mechanical mods a shot, knowing Ohm’s Law and how to determine if your setup is safe to vaping is absolutely necessary.
When finding a battery to use for vaping, you may also see a maximum pulse discharging rate. It’s highly recommended that you ignore this number. While the continuous rate will be safe when the device is activated for long periods, pulse rate is only safe when quick pulses are used. The problem is that there is no standard for how long these pulses are. Some of these pulse ratings may have been based on a pulse of less than one seconds, while others may have been based on five-second pulses. There’s really no way to know, and anything over the continuous rating will cause batteries to heat up which can lead to failure. The only question is how fast they will heat up.
Another number you may see is the C-rating. This number can be used to find the continuous discharge rate, but it isn’t in itself the actual discharge rate. First, you need to convert milliamp-hours (mAh) into amp-hours (Ah), which is really easy. Just move the decimal place to the left by three spaces. For that 3000mAh battery we were previously talking about: 3000mAh=3Ah. That’s it. Once you have that number, multiply it by the C-rating. So if a battery reads “7C” and “3000mAh,” you would convert 3000mAh to 3Ah and multiply it by 7 to get a result of 21A. That is your maximum continuous discharge rate.
When it comes to basic battery safety, you also want to make sure that the wrap on the battery is 100% intact, with no tears or rips. You probably already know that the top of the battery is the positive side, and the bottom is the negative side. What you may not know is that the entire area underneath the wrapper is also negative. If the wrapper is torn and the metal underneath touches something it’s not supposed to, you can end up with the device auto-firing, or the battery venting or hard-shorting. Venting occurs when the battery is punctured, either by something physical or by excessive heat. The gasses inside start to spew out and cause even more heat. Avoid this at all costs. A hard-short occurs when there is no resistance when a circuit is made between the positive and negative sides of a battery. To avoid this, NEVER carry loose batteries. Keys, coins, or other metal objects can shift in a pocket, purse, or backpack and actually create a circuit if they touch the battery in just the right way. When traveling with batteries, always make sure to keep them stored in a designated plastic or fabric battery case.
When a battery vents, ideally you need to let it run its course in an isolated, secure space while someone is prepared to put out a chemical fire with a specific type of extinguisher. Afterwards, the battery must be disposed of properly according to hazardous material standards. Realistically, very few people are prepared for this. The most pragmatic solution is not ideal, but in only requires a glass of tap water. If your battery starts to vent, you should remove the battery as quickly as possible. The longer you wait, the hotter it will get so make sure to not burn yourself and use gloves if you have to. Then, take the battery and submerge it in a glass of tap water or salt water. Make sure the glass is actual glass or ceramic; nothing plastic or paper. Once the battery is submerged, wait for the venting to run its course. The water is actually shorting out the battery by creating a circuit between the positive and negative poles. At the same time, the water is absorbing the heat and keeping the battery relatively safe.
After the battery is done venting, you’re going to have dirty water in a glass, and this is why this solution isn’t perfect. This dirty water is toxic to humans, animals, and the environment. Pouring it down the drain or flushing it down the toilet is damaging to animals and the environment, while keeping it around poses a risk to you and any other living thing in your home. You want to avoid coming into direct contact with the water, and if you’re trying to mitigate as much damage as possible, look to see if any facility exists near you that can properly dispose of the liquid. If you have children or pets, or if you’re simply not comfortable having it in your home, the best solution is to flush it or pour it down a drain. It’s unfortunate, but it will be up to you to weigh the risks of each solution and make an informed decision. The good news is that this whole situation is actually very rare, and there’s a good chance you won’t ever have to deal with it. However, you should know what to do if it does occur.
That should be a good introduction to Ohm’s Law and battery safety. If any of the above information is confusing, I encourage you to watch our video on the subject.

In summary, make sure to follow our guidelines:

Don’t let this information discourage you. Battery failures are very rare in vaping, and virtually non-existent when following safe practices. Plus, this information isn’t exclusive to vaping. The concepts and safety tips above apply to anything that uses lithium ion batteries, including mobile devices, tablets, laptops, etc. Remember, vaping is about reducing certain risks, not eliminating them completely. Nothing is 100% safe, but you can mitigate the maximum amount of risk by arming yourself with knowledge and being safe and smart when vaping.